Traditionally, Newton’s laws are directly used to establish the gravitational relationship between two
objects with any type of motion. However, the relationship is mathematically a vector (or vectors), and
it is difficult to solve, especially when the number of objects is greater than 3, the physical relationship
between objects cannot be simply / clearly revealed. It is even more difficult to study the properties of
a gravitational field. With real data verification error less than 3.5%, we found / proved that physical
properties of the ideal circular motion in the gravitational field are essential / can truly reflect the laws
of motion of gravitationally-bound points in the universe. Regardless the mass of the orbiting point /
body, the central mass and its variation determine the physical properties. In this article, we derive,
use real data to verify and discuss the statistic (fixed central mass systems) expressions / properties
of gravitationally-bound points in single or multiple systems in the universe. Strictly speaking, a star
system like our solar system is a variable central mass system. However, since the rate of solar mass
loss is about 1E-12/year, it can be considered as both a fixed central mass system and a variable
central mass system.

Author(s) Details

Jihai Zhang
Independent Researcher, Canada.

Ping Tao
Independent Researcher, Canada.

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