Study about Neuroplasticity and Spinal Cord Injury: Pathophysiology and Epidemiology


Neuroplasticity is a phenomena that occurs from the time of conception until old age and has distinct properties throughout life. There are three alternative approaches to understand neuroplasticity: morphological neuroplasticity, functional neuroplasticity, and synaptic plasticity. On the other hand, there are several events, such as ontogenetic plasticity, critical period, and impriting, that occur during the development of the nervous system in the embryonic and postnatal periods. Neuroplasticity, whether morphological, functional, or synaptic, is a process that underlies the dysfunctions that occur throughout life. In order to restore the destroyed circuit that will result in a neuroregenerative process, this work investigates the mechanism of neuroplasticity involving spinal cord injuries. a functional recovery, that is. Numerous organic barriers, including gliosis or the release of neurotoxic molecules, as well as other dysfunctions, were discovered both during and after the trauma mechanism, i.e., there is a primary injury brought on by the trauma itself and a secondary injury that is characterised by a chemical injury brought on by trauma, as well as an inflammatory reaction, among other things. On the basis of these earlier discoveries, pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies have been created to enhance the neuroplasticity process and attempt to stop or slow down the chemical damage process. The work’s main goals were to define and illustrate further uses of the term “neuroplasticity,” discuss a few pathological and non-pathological circumstances, and, lastly, illustrate how neuroplasticity and some of its therapies relate to the progression of spinal cord injury. To further develop this study, a narrative evaluation of the literature from the PubMed and UpTo Date platforms from 2000 to 2020 was conducted, as well as an examination of three books. Studies on diseases and methods of treating spinal cord injuries in humans and animals were covered. Articles from before 2000 were disqualified. For the 1990s Bracken studies, an exception was made. In order to promote adequate neuroplasticity in the lesion and reduce the chemical lesion as well as other dysfunctions present at the site, pharmacological studies involving parenteral drug administration were discovered. However, many side effects, such as overdose, were reported after administration. As a result, non-pharmacological techniques incorporating, among other things, spinal supports, stem cells, and nanotechnology were created. Although some of the materials employed did not work for the therapy, nanotechnology showed promise in both the treatment and other forms. It can be said that the best way to treat spinal cord injury is to combine pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments because it encourages neuroplasticity and helps patients with spinal cord injury overcome organic barriers and other dysfunctions. If further research yields reliable and positive results, the treatment should be registered and patented for spinal cord injury patients.

Author(s) Details:

Vinicius Benatti Freire,
Nove de Julho University, Campus Vergueiro, Brazil.

Lucas Cressoni de Souza,
Nove de Julho University, Campus Vergueiro, Brazil.

Mario Henrique de Lima Martinelli,
Nove de Julho University, Campus Vergueiro, Brazil.

Antônio Eduardo Damin,
Department of Neurology of the Nove de Julho UNiversity Medical School, Neurologist and Professor of Neurology at Nove de Julho University Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil .

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Keywords: Neuroplasticity, spinal cord injury, regeneration, nanomaterials, stem cell, pathophysiology, pharmacological treatment, non-pharmacological treatment.

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