Saussurea costus: A Source of Anticancer Bioactives

Cancer is the world’s second largest cause of death and is responsible for an estimated 9.6 million fatalities in 2018. Plant-derived products or extracts are used to treat various illnesses or diseases in folk/traditional medicine. The anticancer function of Saussurea costus and its mode of intervention have been investigated in human breast, colon, and liver cancer cells. The bio-actives developed by S. Extensively extracted costus leaves were investigated for cytotoxic activity against breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2), and colon (HCT116) cancer cell lines in five solvents of different polarities. The highest cytotoxicity and hence the greatest anticancer effect on all the cancer cell lines studied were the secondary metabolites extracted in hexane, methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform solvents, while butanol was comparatively less involved. Further investigations showed that the extract arrested the cells and induced apoptosis in the G1 step of the cell cycle. Elevated pro-apoptotic protein expression and decreased anti-apoptotic protein expression indicated that the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway was involved in mediating cancer cell apoptosis upon S treatment. Extract Costus. Such outcomes indicate that the S. Cost extract is the potential source of the secondary metabolites that could be used to treat various breast, colon, and liver cancers as an anti-cancer agent. However for future research on these active ingredients, more assessments, active compound isolation, in vitro and in vivo evaluations are recommended.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Mushtaq A. Mir,
College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, P.O.Box 3665, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia

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