Role of Vitamins and Nutrition in Old Age as Immune Modulator with Future Prospective

Pain is a coarse side effect of Orthodontic treatment. Various processes of Orthodontic treatment to a degree separator placement, archwire ligation, t loop incitement, intermaxillary elastics, debonding, placement of TADSs, influence varying quality of pain. This pain affects the quality of existence. Studies have shown that Orthodontists often minimize the pain of their patients on account of Orthodontic treatment. This chapter attempts to devote effort to something different management game plans to control pain due to Orthodontic situation.


Author(s) Details:

Tahani Nasser Almofeed Altamimi,
Family Medicine and Geriatric Medicine, Family Medicine Department, College of Medicine, University of Hail, KSA.

Fahmida Khatoon Zahid Balouch,
Biochemistry Department, College of Medicine, University of Hail, KSA and United Medical College, Jinnah University, Pakistan.

Ruba Mustafa Elsaid Ahmed,
Pathology Department, College of Medicine, University of Ha’il, Saudi Arabia.

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Keywords: Zinc, Vitamin C, Intervention, lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells

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