Redshift: Expansion of Space or Inhomogeneities?

Is it possible for light to redshift as it passes across inhomogeneous space? It may appear unbelievable, yet the answer may be yes. The propagation of energy in an inhomogeneous cosmos reveals a shift that could be attributed not only to space expansion but also to oscillations in material qualities (inhomogeneities). When the kinematics of a system are unknown, both sources may contribute to the impact.

This is because the Doppler effects, including redshift, are ordered in consecutive governing equations based on the measuring rod utilised (the frames). A sufficiently huge universe and a sufficiently small multiverse have a symmetry, as does a parallel ordering of measuring rods. The existence of an observer neither too huge nor too little suggests the existence of a sufficiently vast universe or sufficiently small multiverses. A humanoidal or non-humanoidal (e.g. insectoidal) entity with suitable mental potential must be implemented to stand as an observer, completing the presence of an observable cosmos.

In the context of conservation laws and symmetry, complex scale and size entanglement has been shown to represent the common characteristics of a measuring rod and invariantness. If the conservation principles are obeyed, a Doppler-like redshift effect in a static inhomogeneous world is comparable to a relativistic Doppler shift in a homogeneous Euclidean space.

The fragmentation of the multiverse in geological time is revealed by geophysical profiles of various physical attributes taken by distant soundings. Layered sedimentary layers on the Moon and Mars are also under consideration.

Author(S) Details

Edward Szaraniec
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cracow University of Technology, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland and Committee of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

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