Recent Developments in the Laboratory Diagnosis of Tuberculosis

Despite advances in tuberculosis (TB) laboratory diagnosis in the previous 30 years, only a small portion of the world’s population has benefited. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends utilising nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) instead of smear microscopy to detect tuberculosis since NAAT can detect TB with greater precision, particularly in patients with paucibacillary disease and HIV-positive individuals. A number of molecular TB detection tests are now being developed and evaluated, some for use in reference laboratories and others for use in primary care and point-of-care settings. In nations with a high TB burden, the number of molecular tests created, manufactured, and deployed has increased, and some are specifically tailored for use in sites close to the patient. In drug susceptibility testing, NAAT with next-generation sequencing may provide faster results than normal phenotypic culture. Furthermore, as with tuberculin skin tests (TST), the results of tests that detect or quantify cytokines released during the inflammatory process in latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), such as the Interferon-Gamma Release Assay (IGRA), or that quantify IL-6 or other cytokines, are dependent on the prevalence of TB in the tested population. In this research, we look at recent advancements in TB detection assays as well as anti-TB drug resistance.

Author(S) Details

Garcia-Elorriaga Guadalupe
National Medical Center La Raza, CMNR, Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico City, Mexico.

Del Rey-Pineda Guillermo
Federico Gomez Children’s Hospital, Mexico City, México.

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