The complicated process of bone fracture healing includes inflammation, repair, and remodelling. Bone grafts or even bone material substitutes should be used to treat impaired bone repair. Before being used in patients, these bone material substitutes must be evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Various large and small animal models have been used to test various intraosseous and heterotopic bone replacement implants. For the most part, bone substitutes are evaluated orthotopically. However, prior to using large animal osseous defect models, literature advocates starting with small animals. The most widely used flaws sites for implantation in rat and rabbit models are the calvaria and femur, but crucial size defects vary greatly between animals. After the implantation of a bone substitute, heterotopic ossification can be detected in all mammals. The implantation of bone granules, on the other hand, most often does not result in the development of new bone-like tissue in small animals, but only in large mammals. The implantation of bone substitute blocks, on the other hand, does result in the formation of new bone-like tissue in both small and large animals. Chapter locations for implantation of bone substitutes and animal bone deficiency models are critically assessed in this book, with recommendations for future research.
Sektion Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery, Hand Surgery Klinikum Osnabrück, Germany.
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