News Update on Wheat Production Research: June – 2019

Zinc deficiency as a critical problem in wheat production in Central Anatolia

In a soil and plant survey, and in field and greenhouse experiments the organic process standing of wheat plants was evaluated for atomic number 30, Fe, Mn and volume unit Central peninsula, a semi-arid region and therefore the major wheat growing space of Turkey.

All seventy six soils sampled in Central peninsula were extremely basic with a mean pH of seven. 9. quite ninetieth of soils contained but zero.5 mg kg-1 DTPA-extractable atomic number 30, that is wide thought-about to be the crucial deficiency concentration of atomic number 30 for plants full-grown on carbonate soils. regarding twenty fifth of soils contained but two.5 mg kg-1 DTPA-extractable metal that is taken into account to be the crucial deficiency concentration of Fe for plants. The concentrations of DTPA-extractable Mn and copper were within the sufficiency vary. additionally the atomic number 30 concentrations in leaves were terribly low. quite eightieth of the 136 leaf samples contained but ten mg atomic number 30 kg−1. against this, concentrations of metal, Mn and volume unit leaves were within the spare vary.

In the field experiments at six locations, application of twenty three kilogram atomic number 30 ha-1 exaggerated grain yield all told locations. Relative will increase in grain yield ensuing from atomic number 30 application ranged between five-hitter to 554% with a mean of forty third. important will increase in grain yield (more than 31%) as a results of atomic number 30 application were found for the locations wherever soils contained but 0.15 mg kg-1 DTPA-extractable atomic number 30. [1]

The Emergence of Ug99 Races of the Stem Rust Fungus is a Threat to World Wheat Production

Race Ug99 of the flora wheat rust tritici that causes stem or black rust unwellness on wheat was initial detected in Uganda in 1998. Seven races happiness to the Ug99 lineage ar currently notable and have unfold to numerous wheat-growing countries within the jap African highlands, likewise as Rhodesia, South Africa, Sudan, Yemen, and Iran. owing to the condition of ninetieth of the wheat varieties mature worldwide, the Ug99 cluster of races was recognized as a serious threat to wheat production and food security. Its spread, either wind-mediated or human-aided, to alternative countries in continent, Asia, and on the far side is obvious. Screening in African country and African country has known a coffee frequency of resistant wheat varieties and breeding materials. Identification and transfer of latest sources of race-specific resistance from numerous wheat relatives is current to reinforce the range of resistance. though new Ug99-resistant varieties that yield over current widespread varieties ar being free and promoted, major efforts ar needed to displace current Ug99 prone varieties with varieties that have numerous race-specific or sturdy resistance and mitigate the Ug99 threat. [2]

Wheat Production and Research in Ethiopia [1991]

Ethiopia is that the largest wheat producer within the geographical area with regarding zero.75 million angular distance of corn and bread wheat. Wheat is one in all the most important cereal crops within the Ethiopian highlands, that vary between half-dozen and sixteen N, thirty five and forty two E, and from 1500 m to twenty-eight m. At present, wheat is made alone below rainfed conditions. regarding sixty p.c of wheat space is roofed by corn and forty p.c by bread wheat. Of this total wheat production space seventy five.5 p.c is found in Arsi, Bale, and Shewa regions. half-dozen p.c of the thirteen million angular distance classified as extremely appropriate for wheat production is found in Arsi, Bale, and shewa. Altitude plays a vital role within the distribution of wheat production through its influence on downfall, temperature, and diseases. In Arsi, Bale, and Shewa regions, the soil, wetness and malady conditions within the 1900-2300 m altitude zone ar favorable for the assembly of early- and intermediate- maturing kinds of bread wheat. this can be calculable to comprise twenty five p.c of the full wheat space, whereas the remaining seventy five p.c falls within the 2300-2700 m zone. There, early-, intermediate- and late varieties ar adult. Soil varieties used for wheat production vary from well-drained fertile soils to water logged serious verisols. [3]

Rising temperatures reduce global wheat production

Crop models are essential tools for assessing the threat of temperature change to native and international food production1. gift models accustomed predict wheat grain yield are extremely unsure once simulating however crops answer temperature2. Here we have a tendency to consistently tested thirty totally different wheat crop models of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project against field experiments during which season mean temperatures ranged from fifteen °C to thirty two °C, together with experiments with artificial heating. several models simulated yields well, however were less correct at higher temperatures. The model ensemble median was systematically a lot of correct in simulating the crop temperature response than any single model, in spite of the input info used. Extrapolating the model ensemble temperature response indicates that warming is already fastness yield gains at a majority of wheat-growing locations. international wheat production is calculable to fall by 6 June 1944 for every °C of any temperature increase and become more variable over house and time. [4]

Evaluation of Anaerobic Digestate Potential as Organic Fertilizer in Improving Wheat Production and Soil Properties

Integrated use of artificial and organic fertilizers is crucial to property crop production and stabilization of depleting soil fertility. Keeping visible  these certainties, a three-year field study was undertaken to guage the potential of anaerobic digestate alone or in integration with chemical plant food for rising wheat production and soil fertility. Six treatments viz; management (with no amendment), counseled dose (RD) of chemical fertilizers (CF), anaerobic digestate (AD) on the premise of RD of N, farm manure (FM) on the premise of RD of N, ½ N from CF and ½ N from AD, ½ N from CF and ½ N from FM were applied in irregular Complete Block style (RCBD) with 3 replications. The obtained results unconcealed that the best yield (grain and straw), N uptake, NUE, NAE, and NRE were noninheritable  through the employment of chemical plant foods that was statistically at par with combined application of anaerobic digestate and chemical fertilizer all told years of study whereas the minimum was found up to the mark. the mixing of digestate not solely increase yield however conjointly found to be a cautionary possible strategy. Besides, it had been inferred that concerning half gas plant food (urea) are often spared with the appropriation of chemical fertilizers and digestate integration. [5]

Reference

[1] Cakmak, I., Yilmaz, A., Kalayci, M., Ekiz, H., Torun, B., Ereno, B. and Braun, H.J., 1996. Zinc deficiency as a critical problem in wheat production in Central Anatolia. Plant and Soil, 180(2), pp.165-172. (Web Link)

[2] Singh, R.P., Hodson, D.P., Huerta-Espino, J., Jin, Y., Bhavani, S., Njau, P., Herrera-Foessel, S., Singh, P.K., Singh, S. and Govindan, V., 2011. The emergence of Ug99 races of the stem rust fungus is a threat to world wheat production. Annual review of phytopathology, 49, pp.465-481. (Web Link)

[3] Mariam, H.G., 1991. Wheat production and research in Ethiopia. (Web Link)

[4] Rising temperatures reduce global wheat production

  1. Asseng, F. Ewert[…]Y. Zhu

Nature Climate Change volume 5, pages 143–147 (2015) (Web Link)

[5] Muhmood, A., Majeed, A., Niaz, A., S. H. Shah, S. and O. Shahid, M. (2018) “Evaluation of Anaerobic Digestate Potential as Organic Fertilizer in Improving Wheat Production and Soil Properties”, International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 24(1), pp. 1-10. doi: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/43255. (Web Link)

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