News Update on Immunodeficiency Research: Nov – 2019

The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

Recently, a replacement epidemic ill health, the nonheritable immunological disorder syndrome, has dramatically emerged within the u.  s., Europe, and Haiti. The syndrome represents AN unprecedented  epidemic style of immunological disorder involving outstanding defects of the T-lymphocyte arm of the system. Pneumocystis carinii respiratory disease, different opportunist infections, and also the antecedently rare cancer, Kaposi’s malignant neoplastic disease, are the foremost conspicuous sicknesses that have this profound state of immune compromise as their underlying basis. 2 years when the onset of clinical ill health the case-fatality rate could exceed ninetieth. A steady growing body of epidemiological proof indicates AN infectious (probably viral) reason behind the immunological disorder though the accountable agent(s) remains obscure. essential problems encompassing the designation, screening of blood product, treatment of complicating infections and cancers, and prognosis for medicine recovery in affected persons are unresolved. [1]

Immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders.

The incidence of lymphoproliferative illness is considerably higher in people World Health Organization have noninheritable , acquired, or iatrogenically iatrogenic immunological disorder. The immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders area unit clinically and pathologically heterogeneous, area unit of variable being composition, and vary in keeping with the immunological disorder syndrome. however, they share many options, as well as frequent origination in or involvement of extranodal sites, diffuse aggressive microscopic anatomy, B-cell lineage derivation, association with the EBV (EBV), and, often, speedy clinical progression. Reactive and atypical humor hyperplasias and malignant lymphomas occur in association with noninheritable  (primary) immunological disorder. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders area unit usually comprised of a polymorphic cell population, creating it tough to spot their benign or malignant nature by histopathologic criteria alone. Recent studies counsel that they’re cleavable into plasmacytic hyperplasias, polymorphic lymphoproliferative disorders, and malignant lymphomas. [2]

Transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

THE possible routes of transmission of the nonheritable immunological disorder syndrome (AIDS) were established before associate etiologic agent was known. the looks of AIDS in disparate populations, connected solely by probable routes of transmission, was among the initial items of proof suggesting associate infectious cause. initial represented among homosexual men in June 1981,1 AIDS was recognized among endovenous drug users and Haitians the subsequent year2 , three and among recipients of blood or blood product,4 , five infants born to mothers in danger,6 heterosexual sexual partners of patients with AIDS,7 and Africans8 by early 1983. [3]

Unravelling the association of partial T-cell immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation

Partial T-cell immunodeficiencies represent a heterogeneous cluster of disorders characterised by associate incomplete reduction in T-cell range or activity. The immune deficiency element of those diseases is a smaller amount severe than that of the severe T-cell immunodeficiencies and thus some ability to retort to infectious organisms is preserved. not like severe T-cell immunodeficiencies, however, partial immunodeficiencies are usually related to hyper-immune dysregulation, together with pathology, inflammatory diseases and elevated immunoglobulin production. This r association is counter-intuitive — immune deficiencies are caused by loss-of-function changes to the T-cell element, whereas the coincident response symptoms are the consequence of gain-of-function changes. [4]

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viruses among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients Accessing Healthcare in Federal Medical Centre, Keffi, Nigeria

Infections of viral hepatitis and C viruses among seropositive Human immunological disorder virus patients square measure a growing public pathological state in Sub Saharan continent characterised by unaffordable treatment, severe morbidity and associated mortality. This study was aimed toward evaluating the seroprevalence of viral hepatitis and C viruses among HIV infected patients accessing health care at Federal Medical Centre, Keffi, Nigeria. The cross-sectional study passed off between May-July 2016. a complete of two hundred blood samples were collected from HIV patients once consent and self-administered questionnaires were completed. The samples were centrifuged and therefore the liquid body substance screened for HBV and HCV exploitation the immunochromatographic technique. [5]

Reference

[1] Gottlieb, M.S., Groopman, J.E., Weinstein, W.M., Fahey, J.L. and Detels, R., 1983. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Annals of internal medicine, 99(2), (Web Link)

[2] Knowles, D.M., 1999. Immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. Modern pathology: an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc, 12(2), (Web Link)

[3] Friedland, G.H. and Klein, R.S., 1987. Transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. New England Journal of Medicine, 317(18), (Web Link)

[4] Unravelling the association of partial T-cell immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation
Adrian Liston, Anselm Enders & Owen M. Siggs
Nature Reviews Immunology volume 8, (Web Link)

[5] R. Grace, P., B. Victor, O., A. Gloria, A., S. Abimiku, A. and P. Raphael, G. (2017) “Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viruses among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients Accessing Healthcare in Federal Medical Centre, Keffi, Nigeria”, Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 3(4), (Web Link)

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