Struggles over crop rights and labour within contract farming households in a Gambian irrigated rice project
Contract farming schemes supported smallholders area unit increasing in Africa. Peasant house production is being restructured by the method. analysis applied within the Jahaly Pacharr irrigated rice theme within the African country examines the changes that developed with the genesis of ‘contract farming of the dietary staple, rice. the assembly routine generated conflicts and struggles among project households over access to and management of feminine labor. These have semiconductor diode to new labor processes within the project space, that area unit shaping producers’ talents to adjust to contract farming production strictures. 
Investigating Difference: Applications of Wealth Ranking and Household Survey Approaches among Farming Households in Southern Zimbabwe
Wealth ranking and unit survey approaches to understanding wealth stratification are applied in bicycle-built-for-two for a sample of farming households in southern African nation. whereas standard surveys typically stratify sample populations per criteria chosen by the investigator, wealth ranking relies on criteria offered by native individuals. Patterns of wealth and well‐being over time, between ecological zones and in regard to native indicators are explored with focus teams of men and girls. The rankings rising from these discussions are compared with survey knowledge for the identical unit sample. The wealth rankings are extremely correlative with eutherian possession, farm plus holdings, crop harvests and crop sales. Wealth ranks derived from farmers’ analyses are then compared with a cluster analysis of the survey knowledge, with each discrepancies and overlaps mentioned. it’s finished that wealth ranking provides associate degree correct indicator of relative wealth which ranking may be a helpful complementary methodology to be used aboard survey assessments. additionally, qualitative discussions throughout ranking exercises reveal details of the traditionally, socially and economically created understandings of wealth and well‐being of various actors. the traditional assumption that surveys invariably offer ‘better’ knowledge is therefore questioned 
Efficiency of rice farming households in Vietnam
Purpose – the aim of this paper is to estimate technical potency obtained from each information enclosing analysis (DEA) and random frontier approaches victimisation house survey information for rice farming households in Vietnam.
Design/methodology/approach – A bootstrap technique is employed to produce applied mathematics preciseness of the Drug Enforcement Administration expert. Technical potency is sculptural as a perform of house and production factors.
Findings – The results from the settled, semi‐parametric and constant quantity approaches indicate that among different things, technical potency is considerably influenced by primary education and regional factors. additionally, scale potency analysis shows that a lot of farms in Vietnam ar operational with but best scale of operation.
Originality/value – The study is among the primary that use a bootstrap technique and compare estimates from each information enclosing Analysis (DEA) and random frontier approaches. 
Slow Salivary Secretory IgA Maturation May Relate to Low Microbial Pressure and Allergic Symptoms in Sensitized Children
It is unknown why allergic symptoms don’t develop all told hypersensitized kids. we tend to analyzed prospectively the postnatal liquid body substance immune globulin (SIgA) development and whether or not high SIgA levels would shield hypersensitized infants from developing allergic symptoms. secretion total immune globulin and SIgA levels were determined by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay, and hypersensitivity reaction development was investigated at three, 6, and twelve mo and at two and five y in 2 birth cohorts in Baltic Republic (n = 110) and Sweden (n = 91), 2 geographically adjacent countries with completely different living conditions and hypersensitivity reaction incidence. Total and SIgA levels enlarged with age, reaching adult levels at the age of five. Virtually, all secretion immune globulin in Estonian kids was within the liquid body substance type, whereas a significant a part of immune globulin in Swedish secretion lacked the liquid body substance part up to two y mature. In Sweden, high levels of secretion immune globulin while not liquid body substance part correlate reciprocally with house mud toxin levels. High SIgA levels were related to less development of allergic symptoms in hypersensitized Swedish kids. finally, postnatal maturation of the secretion SIgA system yield markedly slower in Swedish than Estonian kids, presumably as a consequence of low microbic pressure. SIgA could limit allergy-mediated tissue injury at membrane surfaces in hypersensitized people. 
Arable Crop Farming and Adoption of Bee Pollination Services among Farming Households in Kwara State, Nigeria
The majority of crop fertilisation services are provided by the honey bee (Apis mellifera) however nearly not out there in most developing countries together with African country. This study was undertaken to assess adoption of Bee fertilisation Services (BPS) by tillable crop farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. A field survey with form administration was conducted in ten authorities Areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. a complete of one hundred sixty farmers consisting of eighty watermelon and 80 soybean farmers were at random sampled in 2 classes. the primary class encompass seventeen watermelon and thirty one soybean farmers with farms situated close to bee house whereas the second category consist of sixty three watermelon and forty nine soybean farmers isolated from apiary. The tools of study were descriptive statistics, internet margin model and double distinction estimators. The results disclosed that the common age of watermelon and soybean farmers were forty three and forty five years, mean education index of four.1 and 4.6 years severally, family size of eight for each and average annual farm financial gain of ₦120550 and ₦135600 severally. The empirical results conjointly disclosed there’s a major distinction in average annual farm financial gain among watermelon and soybean farmers UN agency adopt bits per second and non-adopters. The result showed that low level of farmers’ awareness of importance of bits per second and lack of relevant information and talent to adopt bits per second are the 2 most important constraints towards adoption and application of bits per second. The study recommends farmers’ enlightenment and coaching through extension agents to adopt bee fertilisation service for insect dependent crop production. 
 Carney, J.A., 1988. Struggles over crop rights and labour within contract farming households in a Gambian irrigated rice project. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 15(3), pp.334-349. (Web Link)
 Scoones, I., 1995. Investigating difference: applications of wealth ranking and household survey approaches among farming households in southern Zimbabwe. Development and change, 26(1), pp.67-88.(Web Link)
 Hoang Linh, V., 2012. Efficiency of rice farming households in Vietnam. International Journal of Development Issues, 11(1), pp.60-73.(Web Link)
 Slow Salivary Secretory IgA Maturation May Relate to Low Microbial Pressure and Allergic Symptoms in Sensitized Children Malin Fagerås, Sara Tomičić, Tiia Voor, Bengt Björkstén & Maria C Jenmalm
Pediatric Research volume 70, pages 572–577 (2011) (Web Link)
 Oladimeji, Y. U., Ajao, A. M. and Abdulsalam, Z. (2017) “Arable Crop Farming and Adoption of Bee Pollination Services among Farming Households in Kwara State, Nigeria”, Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 15(2), pp. 1-10. doi: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/31305. (Web Link)