News Update on Chlorination Research: Sep – 2019

Chlorination of Taurine by Human Neutrophils: EVIDENCE FOR HYPOCHLOROUS ACID GENERATION

The model chemical element peroxide-myeloperoxidase-chloride system is capable of generating the powerful oxidizer acid, which may be quantitated by housings the generated species with the β-amino acid, taurine. The resultant stable product, taurine antiseptic, will be quantitated by its ability to oxidize the sulfhydryl compound, 5-thio-2-nitro-benzoic acid to the disulfide, 5,5′-dithiobis(2-nitroben-zoic acid) or to oxidize halide to iodine. victimisation this method, refined myeloperoxidase within the presence of chloride and taurine born-again ratio quantities of oxide to taurine antiseptic. antiseptic generation was completely captivated with oxide, myeloperoxidase, and chloride and will be pent-up by enzyme, myeloperoxidase inhibitors, or chloride-free conditions. [1]

Formation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from Dimethylamine during Chlorination

Chlorine medical care of secondary waste material effluent and drink may end up within the production of the potent substance N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) at concentra tions of roughly one hundred and ten elements per trillion (ng/L), severally. Laboratory experiments with potential NDMA precursors indicate that NDMA typeation will form throughout the chlorination of dimethylamine and alternative secondary amines. The formation of NDMA throughout chlorination might involve the slow formation of one,1-dimethylhydrazine by the reaction of monochloramine and dimethylamine followed by its fast oxidization to NDMA and alternative product as well as dimethylcyanamide and dimethylformamide. alternative pathways conjointly result in NDMA formation throughout chlorination like the reaction of germicide with dimethylamine. However, the speed of NDMA formation is about associate order of magnitude slower than that discovered once monochloramine reacts with dimethylamine. [2]

Chlorination of Organics in Drinking Water

Bench‐ and pilot‐scale investigations unconcealed the influence of precursor compound concentration, pH, variety of disinfectant, and temperature on trihalomethane formation. Implications of the analysis for sterilization treatment procedures to scale back trihalomethane production ar mentioned. [3]

Chlorinated Polyethylene. II. Mechanisms of Chlorination

The present paper deals with the mechanisms of photochlorination and thermal chlorination of synthetic resin as influenced by the microtacticity evolution of the chemical compound beneath chlorination. The investigations are distributed on a branched low-density synthetic resin and a linear high-density polyethylene, each chlorinated beneath varied conditions that enabled us to review the influences of the chlorination time, the chlorination temperature, the chlorination methodology, the solvents used, etc., on the mechanisms of chlorination. [4]

Zinc Recovery from Spent Chemical Sorbent by Dry Chlorination and Electrodeposition from Chloride Solutions

Spent catalysts, chemical traps and sorbents square measure styles of solid wastes generated worldwide, that contain probably valuable or environmentally venturesome materials that require to be recovered before final deposition. Chlorination and electrolysis square measure unit processes applied in extractive science for metal extraction from poly-metallic or inferior ores. the first aim of this study was to assess the likelihood of applying pyrometallurgy (chlorination) and electrometallurgy to spent chemical sorbents used as sulfur traps and to recover atomic number 30. [5]

Reference

[1] Weiss, S.J., Klein, R., Slivka, A. and Wei, M., 1982. Chlorination of taurine by human neutrophils: evidence for hypochlorous acid generation. The Journal of clinical investigation, 70(3), (Web Link)

[2] Mitch, W.A. and Sedlak, D.L., 2002. Formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from dimethylamine during chlorination. Environmental Science & Technology, 36(4), (Web Link)

[3] Stevens, A.A., Slocum, C.J., Seeger, D.R. and Robeck, G.G., 1976. Chlorination of organics in drinking water. Journal‐American Water Works Association, 68(11), (Web Link)

[4] Chlorinated Polyethylene. II. Mechanisms of Chlorination
Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum, Philippe Berticat & Georges Vallet
Polymer Journalvolume 7, pages287–299 (1975) (Web Link)

[5] De Micco, G., J. Pomiro, F., M. Grau, J. and E. Bohe, A. (2017) “Zinc Recovery from Spent Chemical Sorbent by Dry Chlorination and Electrodeposition from Chloride Solutions”, International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 14(3), (Web Link)

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