News Update on Carotenoid Research: Aug – 2019

Carotenoid biosynthesis in flowering plants

The general theme of antioxidant biogenesis has been better-known for over 3 decades. However, molecular description of the pathway in plants began solely within the Nineties when the genes for the carotenogenic enzymes were cloned. Recent knowledge on the organic chemistry of carotenogenesis and its regulation in vivo gift the chance of genetically manipulating this pathway in crop plants. [1]

Engineering the Provitamin A (β-Carotene) Biosynthetic Pathway into (Carotenoid-Free) Rice Endosperm

Rice (Oryza sativa), a significant staple food, is typically polished to get rid of the oil-rich protein layer that turns rancid upon storage, particularly in tropical areas. The remaining edible a part of rice grains, the reproductive structure, lacks many essential nutrients, like carotin. Thus, predominant rice consumption promotes axerophthol deficiency, a heavy public pathological state in a minimum of twenty six countries, together with extremely inhabited areas of Asia, Africa, and geographic area. recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technology was wont to improve its biological process price during this respect. a mix of transgenes enabled synthesis of carotin within the reproductive structure. [2]

Carotenoid Action on the Immune Response

Early studies demonstrating the flexibility of dietary carotenes to stop infections have left open the chance that the action of those carotenoids is also through their previous conversion to antiophthalmic factor. ensuant studies to demonstrate the precise action of dietary carotenoids have used carotenoids while not provitamin activity like xanthophyll, canthaxanthin, carotenoid and astaxanthin. In fact, these nonprovitamin A carotenoids were as active, and occasionally a lot of active, than β-carotene in enhancing cell-mediated and body substance immune reaction in animals and humans. Another approach to review the doable specific role of dietary carotenoids has used animals that area unit inefficient converters of carotenoids to antiophthalmic factor, for instance the Felis catus. Results have equally shown immuno-enhancement by nonprovitamin A carotenoids, based mostly either on the relative activity or on the kind of immune reaction affected compared to β-carotene. bound carotenoids, acting as antioxidants, will probably cut back the poisonous effects of reactive gas species (ROS). These ROS, and so carotenoids, are concerned within the etiology of diseases like cancer, vessel and neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Recent studies on the role of carotenoids in sequence regulation, caspase-mediated cell death and ontogenesis have advanced our information on the doable mechanism by that carotenoids regulate immune perform and cancer.  [3]

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 8 in tomato provides resistance against the parasitic weed Phelipanche aegyptiaca

Broomrapes (Phelipanche aegyptiaca and Orobanche spp.) are obligate plant parasites that cause extreme injury to crop plants. The parasite seeds have strict necessities for germination, involving preconditioning and exposure to specific chemicals strigolactones [SLs] exuded by the host roots. SLs are plant hormones derived from plant carotenoids via a pathway involving the antioxidant Cleavage Dioxygenase eight (CCD8). Having no effective means that to regulate parasitic weeds in most crops, and with CRISPR/Cas9 being a good gene-editing tool, here we tend to demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated cause of the CCD8 sequence are often wont to develop host resistance to the parasitic weed P. aegyptiaca. Cas9/single guide (sg) polymer constructs were targeted to the second DNA of CCD8 in tomato (Solanum genus Lycopersicon L.) plants. many CCD8Cas9 mutated tomato lines with variable insertions or deletions in CCD8 were obtained with no known off-targets. Genotype analysis of T1 plants showed that the introduced CCD8 mutations are inheritable . Compared to regulate tomato plants, the CCD8Cas9 mutant had morphological changes that enclosed dwarfing, excessive shoot branching and root formation. additionally, SL-deficient CCD8Cas9 mutants showed a major reduction in parasite infestation compared to non-mutated tomato plants. within the CCD8Cas9 mutated lines, orobanchol (SL) content was considerably reduced however total antioxidants level and expression of genes associated with carotenoid synthesis were accumulated, as compared to regulate plants. Taking into consideration, the impact of plant parasitic weeds on agriculture and issue to represent economical management strategies, the present study offers insights into the event of a brand new, economical technique that might be combined with varied collections of resistant tomato rootstocks. [4]

13C NMR Analysis: Terpenoids, Steroids and Carotenoid from Diospyros soubreana (Ebenaceae)

Phytochemical investigations on bark of trunks and leaves of Diospyros soubreana (Ebenaceae) semiconductor diode to the isolation and characterisation of 9 molecules: one monocyclic sesquiterpenoid lactone (1), 5 pentacyclic triterpenes (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6), 2 sterols (7 and 8) and one antioxidant alcohol (9), all isolated for the primary time from this species. The structural elucidation of those compounds was applied by 13C NMR spectrum analysis. [5]

Reference

[1] Hirschberg, J., 2001. Carotenoid biosynthesis in flowering plants. Current opinion in plant biology, 4(3), pp.210-218. (Web Link)

[2] Ye, X., Al-Babili, S., Klöti, A., Zhang, J., Lucca, P., Beyer, P. and Potrykus, I., 2000. Engineering the provitamin A (β-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. Science, 287(5451), pp.303-305. (Web Link)

[3] Chew, B.P. and Park, J.S., 2004. Carotenoid action on the immune response. The Journal of nutrition, 134(1), pp.257S-261S. (Web Link)

[4] CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 8 in tomato provides resistance against the parasitic weed Phelipanche aegyptiaca

Vinay Kumar Bari, Jackline Abu Nassar, Sally Marzouk Kheredin, Amit Gal-On, Mily Ron, Anne Britt, Daniel Steele, John Yoder & Radi Aly

Scientific Reportsvolume 9, Article number: 11438 (2019) (Web Link)

[5] Blanchard, B., Faustin, K., Thierry, Y., Mathias, A., Félix, T. and Félix, T. (2018) “13C NMR Analysis: Terpenoids, Steroids and Carotenoid from Diospyros soubreana (Ebenaceae)”, European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 26(2), pp. 1-7. doi: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/45230. (Web Link)

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