Detection of rifampicin-resistance mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Control of tuberculosis is threatened by widespread emergence of drug resistance in tubercle bacillus . Understanding the molecular basis of resistance might cause development of novel rapid methods for diagnosing drug resistance. We began to work out the molecular basis of resistance to rifampicin, a serious component of multidrug regimens used for treating tuberculosis. [1]

Variable host–pathogen compatibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a serious explanation for morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies have reported human pathogens to possess geographically structured population genetics, a number of which are linked to ancient human migrations. However, no study has addressed the potential evolutionary consequences of such longstanding human–pathogen associations. Here, we demonstrate that the worldwide population structure of M. tuberculosis is defined by six phylogeographical lineages, each related to specific, sympatric human populations. In an urban cosmopolitan environment, mycobacterial lineages were far more likely to spread in sympatric than in allopatric patient populations. Tuberculosis cases that did occur in allopatric hosts disproportionately involved high-risk individuals with impaired host resistance. These observations suggest that mycobacterial lineages are adapted to particular human populations. If confirmed, our findings have important implications for tuberculosis control and vaccine development. [2]

Macrophage Receptors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

The resurgence of concern about tuberculosis has resulted within the discovery that tubercle bacillus , a facultative intracellular pathogen, has developed numerous mechanisms for entering human macrophages. during this regardM. tuberculosis differs from obligate extracellular pathogens, like Neisseria species, which have evolved mechanisms for avoiding entry into phagocytes. This review summarizes recent studies of macrophage receptors involved within the uptake ofMycobacterium tuberculosis also because the current state of data of events that follow entry through a selected receptor-mediated pathway, including bacterial survival, phagosome trafficking, and activation of signal transduction pathways. especially , it’s meant to stimulate further efforts to work out why a pathogenic bacterium which will survive and replicate extracellularly has evolved multiple mechanisms to realize entry to the intracellular environment of the cells that are meant to kill it. [3]

The mycobacterial cell envelope — a moving target

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the leading explanation for death thanks to infection, features a dynamic and immunomodulatory cell envelope. The cell envelope structurally and functionally varies across the length of the cell and through the infection process. This variability allows the bacterium to control the human system , tolerate antibiotic treatment and adapt to the variable host environment. Much of what we all know about the mycobacterial cell envelope has been gleaned from model actinobacterial species, or model conditions like growth in vitro, in macrophages and within the mouse. during this Review, we combine data from different experimental systems to create a model of the dynamics of the mycobacterial cell envelope across space and time. [4]

In vitro Antimycobacterial Screening of Ficus sycomorus Extracts on Susceptible Strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Aims: to guage the Anti-mycobacterial activity of sycamore extracts by in vitro screening against susceptible strain of tubercle bacillus to plain TB drugs.

Study Design: Hospital/University based cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: National Tuberculosis and Leprosy training center Zaria, Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello university Zaria. March 2015 to February 2017.

Methodology: The anti-mycobacterial activity of sycamore (stem bark, root bark, leaves and fruits) was studied in vitro using standard Nitrate Reductase Assay techniques against susceptible strain of tubercle bacillus . Phytochemical analysis of the n-hexane fruit extract was done using standard test methods. Partial fractionation of the n-hexane fruit extract was done using Thin layer and chromatography assay. [5]

Reference

[1] Telenti, A., Imboden, P., Marchesi, F., Matter, L., Schopfer, K., Bodmer, T., Lowrie, D., Colston, M.J. and Cole, S., 1993. Detection of rifampicin-resistance mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The Lancet, 341(8846), (Web Link)

[2] Gagneux, S., DeRiemer, K., Van, T., Kato-Maeda, M., De Jong, B.C., Narayanan, S., Nicol, M., Niemann, S., Kremer, K., Gutierrez, M.C. and Hilty, M., 2006. Variable host–pathogen compatibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(8), (Web Link)

[3] Ernst, J.D., 1998. Macrophage receptors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infection and immunity, 66(4), (Web Link)

[4] The mycobacterial cell envelope — a moving target
Charles L. Dulberger, Eric J. Rubin & Cara C. Boutte
Nature Reviews Microbiology volume 18, (Web Link)

[5] A. Song, M., Abarshi, M. M., Ameh, D. A., S. Aliyu, M., Mamuda, K., Nicolas, E., Isiyaku, A., Meshak, P., Mosunmola, I., Abba, K. and Mikailu, S. (2018) “In vitro Antimycobacterial Screening of Ficus sycomorus Extracts on Susceptible Strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis”, Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 15(4), (Web Link)

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