Landlords, sharecroppers and agricultural labourers: Changing labour relations in Rural Java

It has mainlv been the massive landowners in Gondosari who are during a position to require advantage of the modernisasi of agricultural production. Long before the seventies they enjoyed a dominant economic, social and political position within the village. Closely linked by family ties,7 they need occupied all the important positions (such as village head and members of the village administration) since the top of the last century. during this way they need been ready to maintain and enlarge their economic power. Although several of them attempted to interact in commercial farming within the past, particularly within the twenties, until recently such efforts didn’t always meet successfully . The cultivation of money crops like peanuts and kapok was practically under their complete control, but because profit margins were narrow, this didn’t cause accumulation on an outsized scale. within the period 1930 to 1950, when monetized trade practically disappeared as a consequence of economic depression, war and revolution, commercial production was rather unattractive. [1]

Landless Agricultural Labourers’ Asset Strategies

This examination of the asset strategies of landless agricultural labourers in Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu , supports the view that it’s not such a lot lack of finance as lack of incentives that limits poor people’s investments. the choices for landless agricultural labourers include changing patterns of consumption, labour strategies, and ‘investment’ strategies (broadly defined). Different groups make very different choices from among these options. Anti‐poverty programmes in India will still fail as far as landless agricultural labourers are concerned until they tackle the important problems that prevent the poor from acquiring more assets. [2]

Agricultural labourers in India.

This study traces the genesis of agricultural labourers in India, estimates the character and amount of employment and therefore the extent of surplus labour in agriculture, and studies agricultural wage rates and economic conditions from 1891 to 1946 and also regional variations. Part I deals with the break-up of the village community in India and its effect on rural areas, systems of tenure and land revenue during British Rule, the extent of farmer indebtedness and its effect on the agrarian economy, particularly on employment opportunities, internal and external agricultural prices. Part II employment in agriculture, examines regional and national agricultural wage levels and economic conditions. the most conclusion is that real wages of agricultural labourers showed a secular (slow but persistent) tendency to deteriorate during the thirty-year period 1916-1946. I. S. A. E. [3]

Systematic Small Farming

THIS volume could also be divided into two parts. within the first few chapters the author shows, with considerable clearness, the disadvantages under which small farmers or peasant proprietors are placed. the subject is one which has recently been discussed in reference to legislative projects looming upon the political horizon, and Mr. Scott Burn has contributed towards its elucidation. “While he would be glad to ascertain a limited extension—and which he believes would for natural reasons, after all, be indeed but limited—of small farming, with true peasants or agricultural labourers because the farmers, we must unhesitatingly deprecate any extension based upon the system we’ve heard so persistently propounded by certain politicians, through the platform or press, and this we do, if for no other reason than within the true interests of the nation” (p. 98). [4]

Social Exclusion of Tribal Agricultural Labourers: The Case of Adiya Tribal Community of Wayanad District

The tribal communities in Kerala constitute 1.4 percent of the overall population. Despite, Kerala’s remarkable social sector development, it’s observed that the tribal communities still remain the foremost vulnerable community within the state. Hence, this study was an effort to review the extent of social exclusion of Adiya tribal communities of Wayanad. Social exclusion was measured using five indicators and first data was collected from 90 respondents, using structured questionnaire. the info obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics. The study revealed that Adiyas faced an overall exclusion of 66.38 percent. Analysis of extent of social exclusion indicator wise showed that economic exclusion was felt to the extent of 74.54 percent followed by political-legal exclusion (69.89%). Also, Adiya tribe experienced geographical exclusion to the extent of 69.76 percent followed by service exclusion (67.96%) and socio-cultural exclusion (48.92%) respectively. [5]


[1] Hüsken, F., 1979. Landlords, sharecroppers and agricultural labourers: Changing labour relations in rural Java. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 9(2), (Web Link)

[2] Heyer, J., 1989. Landless agricultural labourers’ asset strategies. IDS Bulletin, 20(2), (Web Link)

[3] Ghosh, K.K., 1969. Agricultural labourers in India. Agricultural labourers in India. (Web Link)

[4] Systematic Small Farming
Nature volume 33, (Web Link)

[5] Aswathy, C., Darsana, S. and Vijayan, B. (2018) “Social Exclusion of Tribal Agricultural Labourers: The Case of Adiya Tribal Community of Wayanad District”, Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 23(4), (Web Link)

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