Determining rural farmersâ€™ income: A rural Nigeria experience
This paper describes the earning activities of farmers in Afon district, a rural area in Kwara State, Nigeria with a view to assess factors determining rural farmers’ income. 268 farmers were interviewed through questionnaire administration, and the results show that a large number of rural farmers depend on family labour, local inputs and personal instincts to earn productive incomes. The farmers’ income in this study is used as a major tool for the isolation of basic factors that ought to be accorded priority in subsequent rural development policy. The findings also show that through the use of stepwise multiple regressions, four factors were found to be the main determinants of a farmer’s income out of the twelve examined. These are x3(farm output/yield per ton), x4(cost of farm input and implements), x11(accessibility to credit facilities), and x8(transport cost). In all twelve cases examined four variables together account for about 84.09 % of the total variance in income of farmers within a given year. Appropriate policy recommendations are provided to improve farmers’ income nation wide.
Information and Communication Technology for Rural Farmers Market Access in Tanzania
This paper discusses the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) for rural farmers’ market information access in Tanzania with the case study of Rungwe District. Two hundred farmers were selected randomly to provide information about ICT use for accessing agricultural market information. A structured questionnaire was used to gather information at household level. There were also consultations with key informants, service providers and government officials. Findings show that market information sources are still dominated by the farmers themselves, relatives and traders. Nevertheless, a considerable number of farmers (23%) used ICT to access market information. The use of ICT by farmers was significantly related to the quantity produced (P<1%), income level (P<1%), type of crop marketed (P<5%) and gender (P<5%). Farmers who used ICT obtained higher prices (P<1%) than farmers who did not use ICT for accessing market information. The use of ICT is constrained by costs, accessibility and reliability.
Agricultural information needs and sources of the rural farmers in Tanzania: A case of Iringa rural district
This study aims to determine information needs and sources of the rural farmers in Tanzania specifically from Iringa rural district.
Survey technique was used as the principal data collection technique where 120 rural farmers were interviewed. In-depth interviews of ten key informants from two villages of Ifunda and Kalenga complemented the survey.
70 per cent of farmers’ information needs is about crop and livestock husbandry, marketing, funding options and value addition. However, there is a significant difference between the two wards in information needs for “information on crop and livestock husbandry” as well as information on “value addition”. To a great extent, farmers use the old means of communication, the traditional and interpersonal by default due to relevancy in the context and content. The modern means of communication are used to access non-agricultural (other) information.
Designing effective extension and dissemination programs should consider the needs and mechanisms desired and preferred by specific group of farmers.
Practical implicationsThere is heterogeneity within farming communities in terms of information needs which requires a consideration by intervention programs.
The study identifies information needs and sources of rural farmers. It points out that needs of the farmers are not static and they change over time. Though farmers largely use old means, the modern communications means have the potential of being better sources should the information producers upload relevant and context-specific information.
Land Acquisition and Types of Crops Cultivated by Farmers in Ayedaade Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria
The research was carried out to assess the problems associated with land acquisition and their effect on the type of crops cultivated. Multistage sampling technique was used for selecting 120 farmers for the study. Results showed that the mean age of the farmers was 50.5 years, 76.7% were male and 66.7% married. Also, 64.2% had one form of education or the other with 65.0% having a farm size of less than 2.0ha and 48.3% having farming experience of 1-10years. Methods of land acquisition were mainly through inheritance (42.5%) and purchase (28.3%) with 76.7% cultivating arable crops like cassava and/or maize. Furthermore, (45.8%) of this were as intercrop. Access to market (43.3%) and credit facilities/needed finance (24.2%) influence the choice of crops cultivated. Chi-square analysis showed significant association (p<0.05) between method of land acquisition and education (p=0.00), age (p=0.02). Also there was significant relationship between method of land acquisition and types of crop cultivated (p=0.00). Most respondents were small scale farmers and could not increase their farm size due to financial constraints. Size of farm land was found to influence type of crop cultivated. Thus, the study recommends that farmers should be encouraged to cultivate bigger farm size and government should revisit the land tenure system and land use act to encourage acquisition of more land for agricultural activities. 
Perception and Utilization of Family Planning among Rural Farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria
The study examined perception and utilization of family planning among rural farmers in Ondo state. The study spanned between June 2013 to February 2014. Seventy (70) respondents were selected using snow balling sampling technique. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Findings from the study revealed that 72.9% of the respondents were females while 27.1% of them were males. The mean household size was 6 persons where 80 percent had a household size of between 3-6 persons. The respondents attested that they were all aware of family planning through locally organized campaign by health workers, media and personal knowledge. The study showed that 99.5% of the respondents had access to health facilities. The results established that only 32% of the respondents had adopted family planning while 68% attested that they have never adopted family planning. The respondents agreed that family planning prevents large family size, helps mothers to regain their strength before the next birth and protects the health of the mother. The study recommends that family planning programmes should be organised and supervised by an experienced medical experts.
 Olawepo, R.A., 2010. Determining rural farmers income: A rural Nigeria experience. Journal of African studies and Development, 2(4), pp.99-108.
 Mwakaje, A.G., 2010. Information and communication technology for rural farmers market access in Tanzania.
 Elly, T. and Silayo, E.E., 2013. Agricultural information needs and sources of the rural farmers in Tanzania: A case of Iringa rural district. Library review.
 Adamu, C.O., 2014. Land acquisition and types of crops cultivated by farmers in Ayedaade local government area, Osun state, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.738-745.
 Akinwalere, B.O., Owolabi, K.E. and Adesida, M.A., 2015. Perception and utilization of family planning among rural farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.85-93.