The evaluation of food hygiene knowledge, attitudes, and practices of food handlers’ in food businesses in Turkey
The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety issues among food handlers in Turkey, conducting face to face interview and administrating questionnaire. Of the 764 food handlers who responded, 9.6% were involved in touching or distributing unwrapped foods routinely and use protective gloves during their working activity. A majority of participants (47.8%) had not taken a basic food safety training. The mean food safety knowledge scores was 43.4 ± 16.3. The study demonstrated that food handlers in Turkish food businesses often have lack of knowledge regarding the basic food hygiene (critical temperatures of hot or cold ready-to-eat foods, acceptable refrigerator temperature ranges, and cross-contamination etc.). There is a immediate need for education and increasing awareness among food handlers regarding safe food handling practices.
 Food hygiene training: Introducing the Food Hygiene Training Model
For many years social cognition models and workplace health education theories have been used to map out the variables and identify determinants of various health-related behaviours, including hand hygiene practice, food handling and the use of food thermometers. Whilst many models and theoretical frameworks identify specific determinants or variables of behaviour and organisational interactions this paper takes a holistic approach to food hygiene training and proposes a new theoretical framework. This framework (The Food Hygiene Training Model) encompasses and utilises various theoretical models and educational theories to recognise the various influences on the training, beliefs, motivations, and conditions required for food handlers to perform safe food handling practices in the workplace. Effective food hygiene training and the enactment of safe food handling practices learnt during training are critical elements in the control of food-borne illnesses throughout the world. Therefore, future food hygiene training strategies, if they are to be effective, should consider the adoption of the Food Hygiene Training Model, to aide overall improvements in food businesses, and thus, an overall reduction of food-borne illnesses.
 A review of food safety and food hygiene training studies in the commercial sector
This review summarises the methods and results of studies conducted worldwide on the effectiveness of food safety and food hygiene training in the commercial sector of the food industry. In particular it focuses on those studies that have tried to evaluate the effectiveness of such training. Forty-six studies of food hygiene training are included which used some outcome measure to assess the effectiveness of training. The short-term nature and variety of measures used limited the majority of studies. The need for the development of evaluation criteria of effectiveness of food hygiene training is discussed.
 Socio-demographic Characteristics and Food Hygiene Level Assessment of Food Handlers in Cafeterias around a Federal University in Nigeria
Background and Objective: Globally, food hygiene/food borne illnesses remain subjects of great concern. This study sought to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of food hygiene; and to determine the types, prevalence and load of microbial isolates among food handlers’ in cafeterias around a University in South-Western Nigeria. It also highlighted the socio-demographic characteristics of food handlers/respondents.
Study Design: A cross sectional descriptive design was used, followed by sample collection and analyses.
Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out over a period of three months at cafeterias around the University campus gates.
Methodology: A cross sectional descriptive design using a simple random sampling technique to select 50 participants from six major cafeterias around the University. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Microbial samples collected using palm imprint method, prior to microbial isolation and identification. Descriptive analyses were done with frequency and summary statistics, and SPSS version 15 to determine significant relationships with the p set at 0.05 significance level.
Results: Majority of respondents were female (70%). A higher percentage (46%) of respondents was between 20-29 years. More than half (62%) of respondents were married. Knowledge of food hygiene was good (42%), likewise the attitude (34%), but only one fifth of respondents had good food hygiene practices. Escherichia coli had the highest occurrence (18.9%) of all bacteria. Aspergillus niger had the highest occurrence (31.6%) of all fungal isolates. Hygiene level of respondents was generally low due to the high occurrence of E. coli.
Conclusion: Knowledge of food hygiene amongst food handlers was not complemented by good hygiene practices. Research findings serve as an early warning system to aid implementation of monitoring systems, and spur urgent action from relevant authorities.
 Self-reporting of Food Handlers in Food Production and Distribution Centers in Sanandaj City, Iran
One of the ways to get thorough knowledge to food handlers is self-reporting. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare self-reporting and routine inspection of Environmental Health Inspectors (EHIs) on elimination of health defects in food production and distribution centers. This was a case-control study in which a questionnaire checklist was designed based on Article 13, an Iranian law for inspecting the food production and distribution centers. The questionnaire consisted of five parts including personal, building, tools, transportation, and food hygiene. It was distributed among 45 case and control groups for six months. The case group included the food handlers filling up the checklists monthly according to their place conditions, whereas, the control group included EHIs. After data collection, it was analyzed by means of SPSS (Ver.19), K2 and Mann Whitney tests. Research found significant differences in mean of sanitation conditions in both groups with respect to the food centers with checklist at the end of program in personal hygiene (P=.011), food hygiene (P=.008) and transport hygiene of food (P=.050). Moreover, it was found that the mean differences in place sanitation conditions compliance with the questionnaire at the end of the study was statistically significant in both case and control groups except in the case of building hygiene and food hygiene. This research work proved that self-reporting of food handlers can promote different aspects of sanitation criteria in their workshops. However, it had no significant effect on building and food hygiene.
 Baş, M., Ersun, A.Ş. and Kıvanç, G., 2006. The evaluation of food hygiene knowledge, attitudes, and practices of food handlers’ in food businesses in Turkey. Food control, 17(4), pp.317-322.
 Seaman, P., 2010. Food hygiene training: Introducing the food hygiene training model. Food Control, 21(4), pp.381-387.
 Egan, M.B., Raats, M.M., Grubb, S.M., Eves, A., Lumbers, M.L., Dean, M.S. and Adams, M.R., 2007. A review of food safety and food hygiene training studies in the commercial sector. Food control, 18(10), pp.1180-1190.
 Aruwa, C.E., Akindusoye, A.J. and Awala, S.I., 2017. Socio-demographic characteristics and food hygiene level assessment of food handlers in cafeterias around a Federal University in Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports.
 Samadnejad, F., Khoshniyat, R. and Abdollahi, M., 2015. Self-reporting of Food Handlers in Food Production and Distribution Centers in Sanandaj City, Iran. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, pp.483-489.