Latest Research News on Climate Change Research: Sep – 2019

Long-term Climate Change: Projections, Commitments and Irreversibility

This chapter assesses long projections of temperature change for the top of the twenty first century and on the far side, wherever the forced signal depends on the state of affairs and is usually larger than the interior variability of the climate system. Changes square measure expressed with relevancy a baseline amount of 1986–2005, unless otherwise declared. [1]

Abrupt Climate Change

Large, abrupt, and widespread climate changes with major impacts have occurred repeatedly within the past, once the planet system was forced across thresholds. though abrupt climate changes will occur for several reasons, it’s conceivable that human forcing of global climate change is increasing the chance of enormous, abrupt events. Were such an occurrence to recur, the economic and ecological impacts can be giant and doubtless serious. Unpredictability exhibited close to climate thresholds in easy models shows that some uncertainty can perpetually be related to projections. In light-weight of those uncertainties, policy-makers ought to take into account increasing analysis into abrupt global climate change, up observance systems, and taking actions designed to reinforce the ability and resilience of ecosystems and economies. [2]

Modern Global Climate Change

Modern temperature change is dominated by human influences, that square measure currently giant enough to exceed the bounds of natural variability. the most supply of world temperature change is human-induced changes in part composition. These perturbations primarily result from emissions related to energy use, however on native and regional scales, urbanization and land use changes are vital. though there has been progress in observance and understanding temperature change, there stay several scientific, technical, and institutional impediments to exactly designing for, adapting to, and mitigating the consequences of temperature change. there’s still appreciable uncertainty concerning the rates of modification which will be expected, however it’s clear that these changes are progressively manifested in vital and tangible ways that, like changes in extremes of temperature and precipitation, decreases in seasonal and perennial snow and ice extent, and water level rise. [3]

Dependence of economic impacts of climate change on anthropogenically directed pathways

There are nice uncertainties within the projected economic impacts of climate change1, arising from uncertainties within the climate response2, the global climate change mitigation pathway3 and also the socioeconomic development pathway4. though the relative contributions of those factors are vital for global climate change connected decision-making, they’re poorly understood. Here, we have a tendency to show to what extent the projected economic impacts of global climate change will be attributed to those 3 factors. Our modelling framework consisting of world, multisectoral impact models including Associate in Nursing integrated assessment model allows us to estimate the worldwide total economic impacts of global climate change whereas incorporating these uncertainty sources. [4]

Evidence of Variable Earth-heat Production, Global Non-anthropogenic Climate Change, and Geoengineered Global Warming and Polar Melting

Climate models evaluated by the IPCC ar supported the assumptions that: (1) Heat derived from the Sun is constant; (2) Heat derived from at intervals the world is constant; and, (3) evolution contributions to part warming stem chiefly from heat retention by carbon dioxide and different greenhouse gases. geology proof of variable earthquake activity and geologic proof of variable submarine geological phenomenon given here indicate that heat more to the oceans is variable. The increasing occurrences of earthquakes of magnitudes ≥6 and ≥7 throughout 1973-2015 indicate volcanic activity is increasing and so Earth-heat, yet as volcanic carbon dioxide additions, is increasing. [5]

Reference

[1] Collins, Matthew, Reto Knutti, Julie Arblaster, Jean-Louis Dufresne, Thierry Fichefet, Pierre Friedlingstein, Xuejie Gao et al. “Long-term climate change: projections, commitments and irreversibility.” In Climate Change 2013-The Physical Science Basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, pp. 1029-1136. Cambridge University Press, 2013. (Web Link)

[2] Alley, R.B., Marotzke, J., Nordhaus, W.D., Overpeck, J.T., Peteet, D.M., Pielke, R.A., Pierrehumbert, R.T., Rhines, P.B., Stocker, T.F., Talley, L.D. and Wallace, J.M., 2003. Abrupt climate change. science, 299(5615), (Web Link)

[3] Karl, T.R. and Trenberth, K.E., 2003. Modern global climate change. science, 302(5651), (Web Link)

[4] Dependence of economic impacts of climate change on anthropogenically directed pathways
Jun’ya Takakura, Shinichiro Fujimori, Naota Hanasaki, Tomoko Hasegawa, Yukiko Hirabayashi, Yasushi Honda, Toshichika Iizumi, Naoko Kumano, Chan Park, Zhihong Shen, Kiyoshi Takahashi, Makoto Tamura, Masahiro Tanoue, Koujiro Tsuchida, Hiromune Yokoki, Qian Zhou, Taikan Oki & Yasuaki Hijioka
Nature Climate Changevolume 9, (Web Link)

[5] Marvin Herndon, J. (2017) “Evidence of Variable Earth-heat Production, Global Non-anthropogenic Climate Change, and Geoengineered Global Warming and Polar Melting”, Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, 10(1), (Web Link)

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