Latest News on proteins: May 2022

G proteins

The family of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) serves an essential role in transducing receptor-generated signals across the plasma membrane. Recent findings reveal unexpected functional roles for individual G protein subunits. Thus, GTP-binding α-subunits and the βγ-subunit complex can influence the activity of effector molecules independently or simultaneously, either synergistically or in opposition, to elicit a complex constellation of cellular events. [1]

TIMPs as multifacial proteins

Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are natural inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) found in most tissues and body fluids. By inhibiting MMPs activities, they participate in tissue remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The balance between MMPs and TIMPs activities is involved in both normal and pathological events such as wound healing, tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, invasion, tumorigenesis and metastasis. The intracellular signalling controlling both TIMPs and MMPs expression begins to be elucidated and gaining insights into the molecular mechanisms regulated by TIMPs and MMPs could represent a new approach in the development of potential therapeutics. Numerous investigations have pointed out that TIMPs exhibit multifunctional activities distinct from MMP inhibition. In this review, we detailed the multiple activities of TIMPs in vivo and in vitro and we reported their implication in physiological and pathological processes. Further, we documented recent studies of their role in hematopoiesis and we itemized the different signalling pathways they induced. [2]

Isoprenylated proteins

Isoprenoids are synthesized in all living organisms and are incorporated into diverse classes of end-products that participate in a multitude of cellular processes relating to cell growth, differentiation, cytoskeletal function and vesicle trafficking. In humans, the non-sterol isoprenoids, farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate, are synthesized via the mevalonate pathway and are covalently added to members of the small G protein superfamily. Isoprenylated proteins have key roles in membrane attachment and protein functionality, have been shown to have a central role in some cancers and are likely also to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis and Alzheimer disease. This review details current knowledge on the biosynthesis of isoprenoids, their incorporation into proteins by the process known as prenylation and the complex regulatory network that controls these proteins. An improved understanding of these processe is likely to lead to the development of novel therapies that will have important implications for human health and disease. [3]

Seed Protein in Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz var. Calena

Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an oilseed crop used for biofuel production. By-products from oil extraction are high in protein (about 35%) and can be used for animal feed. The aim of this study was to characterize the protein fraction of camelina meal. The protein fraction of camelina meal is composed by 60% of globulins. The amino acid profile showed an interesting content of sulfur amino acids, but it was rather deficient in lysine. Seed storage proteins were mainly accumulated between 14 and 42 days after pollination, indicating that, at maturity, the accumulation of protein is already finished. SDS-Page separation of meal protein during the development of the seed showed that the 12S globulin is the principal storage protein. [4]

On the Conditions of Hopf Bifurcation for ATM Protein and DNA Damage Signal Model; Cuts off the DNA Healing Process

In this paper, we consider some available models and then introduce a model which simulates the interaction between ATM protein and DNA damage signal, which motivated biologically. Next we find a Hopf bifurcation for this system. Biologically we find a region for the DNA damage signal and ATM protein where solutions in this region are not of those solutions that DNA healing process occurs on these. In fact entering solutions in this region aren’t biologically appropriate solutions.[5]

Reference

[1] Hepler, J.R. and Gilman, A.G., 1992. G proteins. Trends in biochemical sciences, 17(10), pp.383-387.

[2] Lambert, E., Dassé, E., Haye, B. and Petitfrère, E., 2004. TIMPs as multifacial proteins. Critical reviews in oncology/hematology, 49(3), pp.187-198.

[3] McTaggart, S.J., 2006. Isoprenylated proteins. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS, 63(3), pp.255-267.

[4] Russo, R. and Reggiani, R., 2015. Seed protein in Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz var. Calena. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, pp.1-6.

[5] Tanouri, Z., Motlagh, O.R. and Mohammadinezhad, H.M., 2015. On the Conditions of Hopf Bifurcation for ATM Protein and DNA Damage Signal Model; Cuts off the DNA Healing Process. Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science, pp.395-400.

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