Commercial application of enzyme technology for poultry production
Exogenous enzyme supplements are used widely in poultry diets in an attempt to improve nutrient utilisation, the health and welfare of the birds, product quality and to reduce pollution as well as to increase the choice and content of ingredients which are acceptable for inclusion in diets. Considerable advances have been made during the last decade in the manufacture, activity, quality, thermostability and specificity of supplemental enzymes for use in poultry diets. This paper attempts to give an overview of the advantages and disadvantages, as well as the interesting difficulties and variable effects observed when enzymes are added to poultry diets. 
Changes in poultry production and trade worldwide
Global poultry meat and egg production as well as trade with poultry products have shown a remarkable dynamic during the last 35 years. Between 1970 and 2005 poultry meat and egg production increased faster than that of beef and veal or pigmeat. The trade volume of poultry meat increased even faster than production. In 2004, 12% of the poultry meat produced reached the world market but only 1.8% of the eggs. The rapid increase in poultry meat production has been very imbalanced. 
Global poultry production: current state and future outlook and challenges
This paper presents the current situation of the global poultry sector and future trends, and discusses the challenges the sector is facing, with particular emphasis on four areas: food security, social challenges (poverty alleviation and equity), health (animal and human) and environment (natural resources and climate change). Poultry makes a substantial contribution to food security and nutrition, providing energy, protein, and essential micro-nutrients to humans, with short production cycles and the ability to convert a wide range of agri-food by-products and wastes into meat and eggs edible by humans. Poultry is the fastest growing agricultural sub-sector, especially in developing countries. The global poultry sector is expected to continue to grow as demand for meat and eggs is driven by growing populations, rising incomes and urbanisation. In this context, the sector is facing unprecedented challenges. Particularly for small holders and the poor, both in rural and urban areas, poultry is a major asset and key to poverty alleviation, providing income and market participation. Birds can be sold in times of crisis and act as household insurance. But the growing market is essentially benefiting large scale operations and access to market is critical for small holders. However, poultry represent a threat to human health, especially as a vector of infectious diseases and because of its role in antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, poultry has a significant impact on the environment and is a large consumer of natural resources. While the sector is usually seen as efficient in converting natural resources into edible products, it uses large amounts of land, water and nutrients for the production of feed materials and contributes to climate change, mainly through feed production, and air and water pollution. 
Technical and Economic Efficiencies in Poultry Production in Imo State, Nigeria
This study was carried out to estimate the technical and economic efficiencies of poultry farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. The data was collected with semi-structured questionnaire from 140 randomly selected poultry farmers. A stochastic frontier production function was estimated by using the maximum likelihood estimation technique to obtain the technical and economic efficiencies of poultry farmers. The mean technical efficiency of poultry farmers was 75 percent, while their mean economic efficiency was 21 percent. The generalized likelihood test indicated that, the poultry farmers are not fully technically and economically efficient in resource use. There is 79% allowance to increase economic efficiency of poultry farmers by improvement in technical efficiency. 
Commercialisation Level of Poultry Production in Minna Metropolis, Niger State, Nigeria
Aims: The major objective of this study is to find out the proportion of commercial poultry farmers in the study area who procure credit for financing the production and determine the effect of credit on commercialization level of poultry farming in three selected local government areas in Niger state. While the specific objectives are to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of poultry farmers in the area, determine the effect of credit on poultry output in the study area, estimate and compare poultry commercialization index of credit and non-credit beneficiaries in the study area, determine the effect of credit on level of commercialization of poultry farmers in the study area, and examine the constraints faced by poultry farmers in the study area.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria, between January 2011 and April, 2012.
Methodology: The sampling frame for this study is the poultry farmers in Minna Area, Nigeria who are involved in commercial production of either broiler or layer birds. Those raising local chickens were excluded. The sample of 120 commercial poultry farmers were randomly selected from the three Local Governments from a list of poultry farmers obtained from the Niger State Agricultural Development Project (NSADP). Data for this study was collected using standardised questionnaire administered through personal interactions with the respondents. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and frontier production function.
Results: The result suggests that the level of commercialisation is generally low among the respondents and shows no significant difference between beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of credit although beneficiaries of credit seem to be more business-oriented than non-beneficiaries. Also, the estimates of the frontier model shows that only output in 2010, eggs collected in 2008 in crates, eggs collected in 2010 in crates, cost of construction of housing and cost of hired labour significantly affected poultry population, although eggs collected in 2008 had inverse relationship with population. On the other hand, only output in 2009 and cost of medication did not have any significant relationship with household commercialisation index (HCI).
Conclusion: Most of the factors increased technical efficiency suggesting that the farmers tend to manage their farms very efficiently. In view of this, the farmers should be encouraged to see the need to use credit to enhance production and hence increase their HCI. There is need for the farmers to use enhanced production system like battery cage so as to reduce labour input for cleaning the housing. 
 Acamovic, T., 2001. Commercial application of enzyme technology for poultry production. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 57(3), pp.225-242.
 Windhorst, H.W., 2006. Changes in poultry production and trade worldwide. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 62(4), pp.585-602.
 Mottet, A. and Tempio, G., 2017. Global poultry production: current state and future outlook and challenges. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 73(2), pp.245-256.
 Ohajianya, D.O., Mgbada, J.U., Onu, P.N., Enyia, C.O., Henri-Ukoha, A., Ben-Chendo, N.G. and Godson-Ibeji, C.C., 2013. Technical and economic efficiencies in poultry production in Imo State, Nigeria. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, pp.927-938.
 Nmadu, J.N., Iwuajoku, R.C. and Jiya, E.Z., 2012. Commercialisation level of poultry production in Minna metropolis, Niger State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.1-15.