Latest News on Plant Physiology : Dec 2020

Methods in plant physiology.

The importance of practical work in the teaching of plant physiology can hardly be exaggerated and a book dealing exclusively with methods should therefore be of great utility wherever this subject is taught. The book under review is divided into two parts. Part I deals with laboratory exercises which are grouped by subjects but are marked (E), (I) or (A) according to whether they are elementary, intermediate or advanced. More experiments have been included than can be covered in the usual course in plant physiology, with the object of affording the teacher as wide a choice as possible. The chapter on growth-differentiation balance includes two experiments on vernalization.

Part II is concerned with general methods. A noteworthy feature of this section is that it assumes relatively little knowledge of chemistry, physics or physical chemistry. This second part is intended for advanced students and those who are beginning research work; it does not pretend to meet all the needs of specialized research workers. The final chapter is by G. W. Snedecor and deals with statistical methods, such as testing the difference between two samples, regression and correlation and tests of homogeneity using x2. [1]

Introduction to plant physiology.

Repeated requests have prompted the writing of this shorter and more condensed version of Plant physiology by the first two authors which appeared in 1940 and has since been a leading textbook in the USA [cf. X, p. 318]. In general outline and approach, the new book closely resembles the parent volume, but information on recent advances in various fields has been incorporated and many sections have been rewritten. The third author, Associate Professor of Botany, Ohio State University, has shouldered a large share of the responsibility for the preparation of the shorter version. The reduction in length has been achieved by compressing the coverage of certain topics which were considered to be peripheral in relevance, by cutting down on the number of illustrative examples and by eliminating all discussion of techniques of measuring physiological processes. [2]

Plant physiology meets phytopathology: plant primary metabolism and plant–pathogen interactions

Phytopathogen infection leads to changes in secondary metabolism based on the induction of defence programmes as well as to changes in primary metabolism which affect growth and development of the plant. Therefore, pathogen attack causes crop yield losses even in interactions which do not end up with disease or death of the plant. While the regulation of defence responses has been intensively studied for decades, less is known about the effects of pathogen infection on primary metabolism. Recently, interest in this research area has been growing, and aspects of photosynthesis, assimilate partitioning, and source–sink regulation in different types of plant–pathogen interactions have been investigated. Similarly, phytopathological studies take into consideration the physiological status of the infected tissues to elucidate the fine-tuned infection mechanisms. The aim of this review is to give a summary of recent advances in the mutual interrelation between primary metabolism and pathogen infection, as well as to indicate current developments in non-invasive techniques and important strategies of combining modern molecular and physiological techniques with phytopathology for future investigations. [3]

Role of Zinc in Plant Nutrition- A Review

Zinc is plant micronutrient which is involved in many physiological functions its inadequate supply will reduce crop yields. Zinc deficiency is the most wide spread micronutrient deficiency problem, almost all crops and calcareous, sandy soils, peat soils, and soils with high phosphorus and silicon are expected to be deficient. Zinc deficiencies can affect plant by stunting its growth, decreasing number of tillers, chlorosis and smaller leaves, increasing crop maturity period, spikelet sterility and inferior quality of harvested products. Beside its role in crop production Zn plays a part in the basic roles of cellular functions in all living organisms and is involved in improving the human immune system, due to its insufficient intake, human body will suffer from hair and memory loss, skin problems and weakness in body muscles. [4]

Effects of Chemical and Biological Fertilizers on Morpho-Physiological Traits of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.)

Aims: Fertilizer management is an important factor for a successful growth of officinal plants and the identity of suitable fertilizers in plants could have the desirable effects on quantitative and qualitative indices. In order to study the effects of biological fertilizers and NPK fertilizer on growth characteristics, chemical composition of marigold.

Methods: This experiment was conducted in 2012 at the research green house of Birjand University, Iran in a completely randomized in factorial design with three replications.

Treatments included biological fertilizers (without biofertilizer, Psedomonas fluorescence 187, P. fluorescence 178, P. Fluorescence 169, P. putida 159, P. Fluorescence 36) with different NPK fertilizer rates (0, 25, 50, 100%).

Results: Results show that by increasing NPK rates up to 100% dose, number of branches, number of flowers, number of leaf, capitulum diameter, capitulum, bracket diameter, phosphorus and potassium content were significantly increased when compared with the zero NPK. The combined treatment of biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer significantly increased the flowering stem height, chlorophyll index, nitrogen and flavonoids content. The highest content and the concentration of flavonoids were obtained when plant was treated with P. fluorescence 36 strain.

Conclusion: The results showed that just usage of biological fertilizers or in combination with chemical fertilizers had the positive effects on physiological traits of Calendula officinalis L., and using the biological potential instead of continious usage of chemical fertilizers can improve the stability of agriculture and certify the quality of officinal plants. [5]

Reference

[1] Loomis, W.E. and Shull, C.A., 1937. Methods in plant physiology. Methods in plant physiology.

[2] Meyer, B.S., Anderson, D.B. and Böhning, R.H., 1960. Introduction to plant physiology. Introduction to plant physiology.

[3] Berger, S., Sinha, A.K. and Roitsch, T., 2007. Plant physiology meets phytopathology: plant primary metabolism and plant–pathogen interactions. Journal of experimental botany, 58(15-16), pp.4019-4026.

[4] Hafeez, B., M. Khanif, Y. and Saleem, M. (2013) “Role of Zinc in Plant Nutrition- A Review”, Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 3(2), pp. 374-391. doi: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/2746.

[5] Arab, A., Reza Zamani, G., Hassan Sayyari, M. and Asili, J. (2015) “Effects of Chemical and Biological Fertilizers on Morpho-Physiological Traits of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.)”, European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 8(1), pp. 60-68. doi: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/16697.

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