Latest News on Memory Disorders : Nov 2020

Semantic memory disorders

Semantic memory encompasses knowledge of objects, facts and words. A number of brain regions are probably involved, but the left infero-lateral temporal lobe appears to play a key role. The separability of semantic memory from episodic (or autobiographical) memory is a focus of current debate. Impaired semantic memory is a common feature of Alzheimer’s disease but is invariably overshadowed by a profound deficit in episodic memory. In semantic dementia, a rarer disorder associated with focal temporal-lobe atrophy, there is selective loss of semantic memory, characterized by preservation of superordinate knowledge of words, and objects, but loss of finer-grained information. This pattern can be interpreted as a degradation of features from a distributed network of semantic representations. Following Herpes simplex encephalitis, patients sometimes show disproportionate loss of knowledge for natural kinds (e.g. animals) with relative preservation of knowledge about artefacts, this may reflect differential damage to neural systems critical for perceptual as opposed to functional features, perceptual properties being more salient in knowledge about natural kinds. [1]

Memory disorders associated with huntington’s disease: Verbal recall, verbal recognition and procedural memory

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the hypothesis that the memory disorders of Huntington’s Disease (HD) patients are characterized by deficiencies in both retrieval mechanisms and the acquisition of procedural (skill-based) information. In the first study, verbal recall and recognition tests were administered to HD patients, amnesics and normal control (NC) subjects. Although the two patient groups were impaired relative to NC subjects on both recall and recognition of word lists, the performance of the HD patients was superior to that of the amnesics on the recognition test. In the second experiment early HD (EHD), advanced HD (AHD), amnesic and NC subjects were compared in the acquisition of the ‘Tower of Hanoi’ puzzle. Both the NC subjects and EHD patients acquired the solution of this puzzle after repeated trials, whereas the AHD and amnesic patients evidenced little improvement. However, on a recognition test assessing memory for facts about the puzzle, both the EHD and AHD patients were superior to the amnesic subjects. These results are consistent with the retrieval hypothesis but are equivocal with regard to the HD patients’ proposed deficit in skill learning. Since the ‘Tower’ puzzle may rely heavily on both problem solving and skill learning capabilities, it may be of limited value in searching for double dissociations between patient groups and the acquisition of skill-based and data-based knowledge. [2]

Remediation of memory disorders: Experimental evaluation of the Spaced-Retrieval technique

Research concerning remediation of memory disorders has frequently been concerned with mnemonic techniques that demand a great deal of elaborative and effortful processing. The present study examines a relatively simple technique, known as spaced retrieval, in which patients are taught to retrieve information at increasingly long temporal intervals after initial presentation. Results indicated that the spaced-retrieval technique aided patients’ learning of new information. There was also evidence of learning to learn: Two of the four patients who were studied learned to use the technique in the absence of explicit cues from the experimenter. Issues pertaining to the possible usefulness of spaced retrieval in everyday life are discussed. [3]

Medicine that Causes Memory Loss: Risk of Neurocognitive Disorders

Medicine is one of the outstanding gifts of science to save lives. In addition to the desired therapeutic effect almost all of the medicine possesses the undesired secondary effect called side effect. From the over-the-counter (OTC) aspirin to the prescription medicine on the market, all medicines come with side effects. Numerous are negligible, few are problematic, some are major and certain are just weird. Almost any drug can cause nausea, vomiting or an upset stomach. Every medication carries some risks, although in some cases side effects are not noticeable as a result of sub-therapeutic concentration and memory loss are very common side effect of commonly used and prescribed medicines. The memory loss is one of the prominent causes of neurocognitive disorders, especially dementia, which is characterized by a disturbance of multiple brain functions, including memory, thinking, learning, reading calculation and judgment severe enough to reduce a person’s ability to perform everyday activities. In addition to memory loss various factors as well as disorders contribute to the development of dementia. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative dementia. Including AD, Lewy body dementia and frontotemporal dementia give rise to progressive and irreversible loss of neurons and brain functions. At present, there are no treatments for these progressive neurodegenerative disorders. Medication associated with the risk of memory loss must be taken with more precaution. Therefore, the objective of this study is to show the risk of  memory loss associated with antianxiety drugs (benzodiazepines), hypolipidemic drugs (statins), antiepileptic drugs (older and newer), antidepressant drugs (tricyclic antidepressants), narcotic painkillers (opioids), anti-Parkinson’s drugs (dopamine agonists), antihypertension drugs (β-blockers), sleeping aids (nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics), incontinence drugs  (anticholinergics and antimuscarinic) and antihistamines (first-generation). [4]

Application of Working Memory Computerized Test (WMCT) for Working Memory Deficit in Patients with Parkinson Disease

Introduction: This study deals with the study of memory rehabilitation in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Measures included systematic rehabilitation techniques for the recovery of symptoms and had no errors. However, issues related to the design and implementation of effective, are not clear and require further study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cognitive function in PD patients after the rehabilitation of working memory.

Methods: The outline of this study was cross-sectional with simple random sampling. According to the pilot study was the sample size n = 120 and n = 60 in each sex. Initially, patients were examined by a neurologist and psychiatrist. Consent form was completed after the final diagnosis. A computerized test of working memory rehabilitation was administered. Rehabilitation computerized test was done in 15 minutes to prevent fatigue effect. Information entered in the software SPSS18. And they were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation test and t-test.

Results: There were significant differences in all variables of test in patients with Parkinson’s disease before and after rehabilitation. And after rehabilitation has risen Memory span percent.

Conclusion: In patients with Parkinson’s disease have shown favorable results after rehabilitation with this test. [5]

[1] Hodges, J.R. and Patterson, K., 1997. Semantic memory disorders. Trends in cognitive sciences, 1(2), pp.68-72.

[2] Butters, N., Wolfe, J., Martone, M., Granholm, E. and Cermak, L.S., 1985. Memory disorders associated with Huntington’s disease: Verbal recall, verbal recognition and procedural memory. Neuropsychologia, 23(6), pp.729-743.

[3] Schacter, D.L., Rich, S.A. and Stampp, M.S., 1985. Remediation of memory disorders: Experimental evaluation of the spaced-retrieval technique. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 7(1), pp.79-96.

[4] Sahab Uddin, M., Al Mamun, A., Shahid Sarwar, M., Haque Chaity, N., Haque, A., Akter, N. and Shah Amran, M. (2016) “Medicine that Causes Memory Loss: Risk of Neurocognitive Disorders”, International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, 8(1), pp. 1-18. doi: 10.9734/INDJ/2016/26317.

[5] Zarghi, A., Zali, A., Ashrafi, F., Moazzezi, S. and Bandegani, N. (2015) “Application of Working Memory Computerized Test (WMCT) for Working Memory Deficit in Patients with Parkinson Disease”, Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 10(4), pp. 1-10. doi: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/17587.

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