A Study of Economic Efficiency of Utah Dairy Farmers: A System Approach
This study is primarily concerned with investigating the technical, allocative and scale inefficiency of owner-operators of dairy farms in Utah. A stochastic production frontier has been applied to analyse these inefficiencies. The results indicate that there is positive association between years of education and productivity of labor and capital. Productivity is also found to be negatively related to off-farm income. Regarding the effects of farm size on efficiency it is found that large farms are the most efficient of all sizes considered. Separate estimates of technical, allocative and scale inefficiencies indicate that large and medium-sized farms are technically more efficient than small farms. Large farms, on average, are found to be performing much better than medium-sized and small farms so far as allocative and scale inefficiency are concerned.
Dairy farmers’ attitudes and intentions towards improving dairy cow foot health
Dairy cow foot health is a subject of concern because it is considered to be the most important welfare problem in dairy farming and causes economic losses for the farmer. In order to improve dairy cow foot health it is important to take into account the attitude and intention of dairy farmers. In our study the objective was to gain insight into the attitude and intention of dairy farmers to take action to improve dairy cow foot health and determine drivers and barriers to take action, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Five hundred Dutch dairy farmers were selected randomly and were invited by email to fill in an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions about respondents’ intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control and was extended with questions about personal normative beliefs. With information from such a framework, solution strategies for the improvement of dairy cow foot health can be proposed. The results showed that almost 70% of the dairy farmers had an intention to take action to improve dairy cow foot health. Most important drivers seem to be the achievement of better foot health with cost-effective measures. Possible barriers to taking action were labor efficiency and a long interval between taking action and seeing an improvement in dairy cow foot health. The feed advisor and foot trimmer seemed to have most influence on intentions to take action to improve dairy cow foot health. Most farmers seemed to be satisfied with the foot health status at their farm, which probably weakens the intention for foot health improvement, especially compared to other issues which farmers experience as more urgent. Subclinical foot disorders (where cows are not visibly lame) were not valued as important with respect to animal welfare. Furthermore, 25% of the respondents did not believe cows could suffer pain. Animal welfare, especially the provision of good care for the cows, was valued as important but was not related to intention to improve dairy cow foot health. The cost-effectiveness of measures seemed to be more important. Providing more information on the effects of taking intervention measures might stimulate farmers to take action to achieve improvement in dairy cow foot health.
Entrepreneurial behaviour of dutch dairy farmers under a milk quota system: goals, objectives and attitudes
An empirical model, based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, was developed to test the hypothesis that differences in farmers’ goals, objectives and attitudes are a determinant of strategic and entrepreneurial behaviour and will, therefore, result in differences in farm size. The theory states that a person’s behaviour results from his/her goals and intentions, attitudes, perceived behavioural control and social norms. Data (n=257) were gathered from a questionnaire that was sent to a selected group of Dutch dairy farmers, members of study-groups in the northern part of the Netherlands. Answers to statements about goals as well as statements related to attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control, explained 38% of the variance in farm size as expressed by farmers’ milk quota. The goal of having a “large and modern farm” was positively correlated with farm size, while those related to “having a breeding farm” and “extra source of income” were significantly negatively correlated with farm size. A significant relationship was found between behaviour (farm size as expressed by a farm’s milk quota) and goals and intentions of farmers. This relationship is even stronger when statements on attitudes, social norms and perceived behavioural control are included. Farm size is mainly explained by farmers’ instrumental goals. This suggests that farm size is not relevant for fulfilling intrinsic, expressive and social goals. This research shows a consistency with the Theory of Planned Behaviour and can be used in empirical research by applying it to data collected in a questionnaire. Such psychological models on decision making can help to yield insight into aspects related to entrepreneurial behaviour of dairy farmers.
Descriptive Analysis of the Effectiveness of Livestock Extension Services Delivery among Dairy Farmers in District Peshawar
The instant study analyzes farmer’s perception about the livestock extension services in district Peshawar. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select three villages and proportional allocation method was utilized to select 80 dairy farmers from the three selected villages. Primary data was collected through interview schedules from the selected respondents. Field data showed that 36% of the respondents contacted livestock and 67% of the respondents responded that livestock officer paid visit to them. Majority of the respondents (69%) were not satisfied from the services of livestock and dairy development department. The study concludes that livestock and dairy development department did not provide satisfactory facilities nor training regarding improved dairy technologies was provided. Livestock extension officers were also not found fulfilling their jobs accordingly by visiting the farmers on regular basis which compels the dairy farmers to consult private clinics at high cost. It is suggested therefore that independent monitoring unit should be established to ensure livestock officer to pay regular and frequent visits to the farmers to educate the dairy farmers which will build and restore the trust and confidence of the dairy farmers on livestock extension department alongside improving their dairy production.
Extent of Adoption of Improved Animal Husbandry Practices by Dairy Farmers of Morar Block in Gwalior District
Recent advances in animal husbandry technologies have demonstrated potential for maximization of milk productivity and all these requires adoption of improved technologies. The present study was conducted to assess the extent of adoption of improved animal husbandry practices by dairy farmers of Morar Block in Gwalior district of Madhya Pradesh. Simple random sampling method was used to select 120 dairy farmers as respondents. The findings revealed that reproductive practices like artificial insemination at proper time of heat with semen of good bull was regularly adopted by 80.00 per cent of the dairy farmers, regarding nutritional practices provision of ad libitum clean and fresh water was regularly adopted by 85.00 per cent of dairy farmers, washing of hands and udder before milking was the management practices regularly adopted by 96.67 per cent of the farmers. To control disease, prompt reporting of outbreak of a contagious disease to the local veterinarian was adopted by 76.67 per cent of the dairy farmers. Marketing practice like obtaining loans from nationalised banks instead of private money lender to purchase inputs for dairy farming was continuously adopted by 63.34 per cent of the farmers. The final study reveals that 58.33 per cent of the respondents had medium level of adoption of improved animal husbandry practices.
 Kumbhakar, S.C., Biswas, B. and Bailey, D., 1989. A study of economic efficiency of Utah dairy farmers: a system approach. The review of Economics and Statistics, pp.595-604.
 Bruijnis, M., Hogeveen, H., Garforth, C. and Stassen, E., 2013. Dairy farmers’ attitudes and intentions towards improving dairy cow foot health. Livestock Science, 155(1), pp.103-113.
 Bergevoet, R.H., Ondersteijn, C.J.M., Saatkamp, H.W., Van Woerkum, C.M.J. and Huirne, R.B.M., 2004. Entrepreneurial behaviour of Dutch dairy farmers under a milk quota system: goals, objectives and attitudes. Agricultural Systems, 80(1), pp.1-21.
 Nawaz, A., Khan, M.Z., Rehman, A. and Ullah, R., 2016. Descriptive Analysis of the Effectiveness of Livestock Extension Services Delivery among Dairy Farmers in District Peshawar. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.1-6.
 Meena, N.C., Badodiya, S.K. and Biam, K.P., 2017. Extent of adoption of improved animal husbandry practices by dairy farmers of Morar Block in Gwalior District. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.1-8.