Carcinosarcoma is a rare but highly aggressive uterine malignancy. Pathologically, carcinosarcoma is a biphasic neoplasm composed of a mixture of malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. A comprehensive approach for management is recommended with complete surgical staging to assess tumor dissemination followed by multimodal therapy with combinations of external beam irradiation or vaginal brachytherapy and systematic chemotherapy in patients with both early and advanced stage disease. 
Metaplastic carcinomas of the breast. III. Carcinosarcoma
The clinical and pathologic features of 70 examples of carcinosarcoma (CS) of the breast are reported. Thirty‐three neoplasms had infiltrating carcinoma, seven had in situ carcinoma, and 28 had both admixed or contiguous with the sarcomatous component. Squamous carcinoma, present in 15 neoplasms, was the exclusive epithelial component of two. The admixed carcinoma often appeared distinct from the sarcoma component; however, at high magnification transitional differentiation zones and more subtle merging of infiltrating carcinoma with sarcoma were present in most neoplasms. A total of 40 neoplasms were studied by immunohistochemistry for keratins, EMA, vimentin, S‐100 protein, and actin. The sarcomatous component in 55% of CS was immunoreactive for keratin, and 98% were immunoreactive for vimentin. A majority were also immunoreactive for actin (77%), and S‐100 protein (55%). Ultrastructural examination of the sarcoma in eight neoplasms yielded variable nonspecific findings compatible with sarcoma. These findings indicate biphasic differentiation by cells possessing epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics and suggest myoepithelial origin or differentiation. The cumulative 5‐year survival rate for CS was 49%, worse than for other forms of metaplastic carcinoma. The respective 5‐year survivals for TNM clinical Stages I, II, and III were 100%, 63%, and 35%. Of patients with axillary dissection, 26% had metastases to axillary lymph nodes with carcinoma as the most frequent component to metastasize. Metastasis was an ominous sign as 33 of 34 patients who developed metastases died from tumor. Local recurrence was not as ominous as 40% who had only local recurrence subsequently died from tumor. Size and microscopic circumscription were also significant prognostic factors. 
CARCINOSARCOMA AND SARCOMATOID CARCINOMA OF THE BLADDER: CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF 41 CASES
Carcinosarcoma of the bladder is a rare neoplasm characterized by an intimate admixture of carcinoma and malignant soft tissue neoplasm. The clinical usefulness of separating carcinosarcoma (carcinoma with sarcomatous component) from sarcomatoid carcinoma (carcinoma with spindle cell carcinomatous component) is uncertain, and it comprises the subject of this report.
Materials and Methods
We reviewed the clinical and pathological records of 10 men and 5 women a mean of 66 years old with carcinosarcoma, and 21 men and 5 women a mean of 66.5 years old with sarcomatoid carcinoma of the bladder, as documented in the files of the Mayo Clinic between 1936 and 1995.
Of the 15 patients in the carcinosarcoma group 9 had urothelial carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, 3 had squamous cell carcinoma and 2 had more than 1 type. The sarcomatous component included chondrosarcoma in 3 cases, leiomyosarcoma in 3, malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 3, osteosarcoma in 2, fibrosarcoma in 1, rhabdomyosarcoma in 1 and more than 1 type in 2. All disease was high stage at presentation. Treatment included cystectomy in 11 patients with (4) and without (7) radiation therapy, and transurethral resection in 4 with (1) and without (3) radiation therapy. Mean followup available in 14 cases was 34 months (range 1 to 144). A total of 11 patients died of cancer at 1 to 48 months (mean 17.2) and 2 survived for 8 to 131 months. Of the 26 patients in the sarcomatoid carcinoma group 18 had urothelial carcinoma, 1 had squamous carcinoma, 2 had urothelial carcinoma combined with squamous cell carcinoma and 5 had spindle cells only with no recognizable epithelium. All but 1 case was high stage at diagnosis. Treatment included transurethral resection in 17 patients with (7) and without (10) radiation therapy, including 1 who also received chemotherapy, and only cystectomy in 5, including 2 who also underwent radiation therapy and 1 who also received chemotherapy. Mean followup available in 21 cases was 49 months (range 1 to 420). A total of 17 patients died of cancer at 1 to 73 months (mean 9.8), 1 was alive at 140 months and 3 died of unrelated causes.
Carcinosarcoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the bladder are highly aggressive malignancies with a similar outcome regardless of histological findings and treatment. Pathological stage is the best predictor of survival. 
Carcinosarcoma of Ovary, it’s Histopathological, Management and Prognostic Analysis with Review of Literature
Carcinosarcoma is a mixed malignant biphasic tumour representing a rare entity and comprises of both epithelial and mesenchymal components. Primary ovarian carcinosarcoma is a rare neoplasm with a number of cases reported in the literature in the hundreds. It accounts for less than 1% of all ovarian tumours. These tumours are usually diagnosed at older age and advanced stage. It has aggressive clinical behaviour and survival depends on stage at presentation. Radiological imagings cannot differentiate carcinosarcomas from other ovarian cancers. Diagnosis is based upon histological findings. Cytoreductive debulking surgery is a crucial part in the treatment of carcinosarcoma of ovary. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy regimen is still controversial. Combination chemotherapy with taxane and platinum based regimen or ifosfamide and platinum based regimen are considered as adjuvant treatment. Despite aggressive treatment modalities such as surgery and chemotherapy, the outcome is poor. Response to therapy and overall survival for carcinosarcoma are poor in comparison to that of epithelial ovarian malignancies. Due to rarity of the disease, such poor prognosis needs collaboration of studies with molecular analysis to obtain new therapeutic guidelines to improve survival of the patients. 
Sarcomatoid Carcinoma (Carcinosarcoma) of the Prostate Gland: A Review of the Literature
Background: Adenocarcinomas of the prostate gland are commonly encountered globally but other uncommon variants of carcinoma of the prostate are sporadically encountered including primary sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate (PSCP).
Aims: To review the literature of PSCP.
Methods: Various internet search engines were searched for literature on PSCP.
Literature Review: About 100 cases of PSCP have so far been reported. PSCP may develop de novo or may emanate following hormonal treatment or radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of prostate; PSCP may present with LUTS, haematuria, perineal/back pain. Histology of prostate biopsy tends to show a biphasic tumour which has an adenocarcinoma component as well as a second component which is a clearly recognizable type of sarcoma component which could be angiosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma or rhabdomyosarcoma. With regard to immunohistochemistry Immunohistochemistry, the epithelial component of sarcomatoid carcinoma of prostate stains positively for cytokeratin and PAP, and negatively for PSA; the sarcoma component stains negatively for PSA, EMA and keratin. There is no consensus opinion on treatment. TURP has been performed for lower urinary tract obstruction symptoms and urinary retention, radical prostatectomy, pelvic exenteration, and chemotherapy are some of the treatments employed. A number of cases of PSCP had presented at advanced stages of the disease. PCSP is aggressive with poor prognosis; however, early aggressive surgery in some cases had resulted in survival.
Conclusions: A multi-centre trial is required to determine the best treatment option for PSCP.
Perhaps patients with progressing prostate cancer following radiotherapy of castrate resistant prostate cancer should have repeat prostate biopsies to determine if they have developed dedifferentiation into PSCP or other variants of prostate cancer and to try cases of PSCP on chemotherapy as a trial. 
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 Wargotz, E.S. and Norris, H.J., 1989. Metaplastic carcinomas of the breast. III. Carcinosarcoma. Cancer, 64(7), pp.1490-1499.
 Lopez-Beltran, A., Pacelli, A., Rothenberg, H.J., Wollan, P.C., Zincke, H., Blute, M.L. and Bostwick, D.G., 1998. Carcinosarcoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the bladder: clinicopathological study of 41 cases. The Journal of urology, 159(5), pp.1497-1503.
 Nayak, R. and Kumar Sahoo, T. (2015) “Carcinosarcoma of Ovary, it’s Histopathological, Management and Prognostic Analysis with Review of Literature”, Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, 3(2), pp. 1-10. doi: 10.9734/JCTI/2016/22769.
 Kodzo-Grey Venyo, A. (2015) “Sarcomatoid Carcinoma (Carcinosarcoma) of the Prostate Gland: A Review of the Literature”, Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, 2(3), pp. 128-143. doi: 10.9734/JCTI/2015/19516.