A toxicologist guide to the diagnostic interpretation of hepatic biochemical parameters
Assessing liver damage in basic toxicology research and in preclinical toxicity testing is usually evaluated by serum biochemical parameters prior to confirmation by histopathology. With the advent of newer methods such as genomics and proteomics, there is increased enthusiasm to generate “novel” predictive markers to detect liver pathology even before the alterations in clinical and histopathology parameters occur. However, serum biochemical parameters (clinical pathology) when employed accurately, can provide important and useful information in assessing not only the extent and severity of liver damage, but also the type of liver damage (membrane injury versus cholestasis and hepatic function). In order to accurately detect hepatobiliary pathologies, it is important to have a basic understanding of liver associated clinical pathology parameters with reference to their exact location, serum half-lives, tissue concentration gradient and species differences. Such understanding as discussed in this article will enable a toxicologist to identify commonly encountered toxic hepatic lesions such as necrosis, cholestasis and compromised liver function by hepatic-associated clinical pathology parameters. In addition, toxicologists will have a better grasp to effectively communicate their clinical pathology findings and interpretations to the target audiences. 
Biochemical parameters of glutamine synthetase from Klebsiella aerogenes.
The glutamine synthetase (GS) from Klebsiella aerogenes is similar to that from Escherichia coli in several respects: (i) it is repressed by high levels of ammonia in the growth medium; (ii) its biosynthetic activity is greatly reduced by adenylylation; and (iii) adenylylation lowers the pH optimum and alters the response of the enzymes to various inhibitors in the gamma-glutamyl transferase (gammaGT) assay. There are, however, several important differences: (i) the isoactivity point for the adenylylated and non-adenylylated forms in the gammaGT assay occurs at pH 7.55 in K. aerogenes and at pH 7.15 in E. coli; (ii) the non-adenylylated form of the GS from K. aerogenes is stimulated by 60 mM MgCl2 in the gammaGT assay at pH 7.15. A biosynthetic reaction assay that correlates well with number of non-adenylylated enzyme subunits, as determined by the method of Mg2+ inhibition of the gammaGT assay, is described. Finally, we have found that it is necessary to use special methods to harvest growing cells to prevent changes in the adenylylation state of GS from occurring during harvesting. 
Gut microbiota composition is associated with body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women
Obesity is associated with complications during pregnancy and increased health risks in the newborn. The objective of the present study was to establish possible relationships between gut microbiota, body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women. Fifty pregnant women were classified according to their BMI in normal-weight (n 34) and overweight (n 16) groups. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR in faeces and biochemical parameters in plasma at 24 weeks of pregnancy. Reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides and increased numbers of Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli were detected in overweight compared with normal-weight pregnant women. E. coli numbers were higher in women with excessive weight gain than in women with normal weight gain during pregnancy, while Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia muciniphila showed an opposite trend. In the whole population, increased total bacteria and Staphylococcus numbers were related to increased plasma cholesterol levels. Increased Bacteroides numbers were related to increased HDL-cholesterol and folic acid levels, and reduced TAG levels. Increased Bifidobacterium numbers were related to increased folic acid levels. Increased Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli numbers were related to increased ferritin and reduced transferrin, while Bifidobacterium levels showed the opposite trend. Therefore, gut microbiota composition is related to body weight, weight gain and metabolic biomarkers during pregnancy, which might be of relevance to the management of the health of women and infants. 
Safety Evaluation of Giant African Land Snails (Archachatina maginata) Haemolymph on Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Albino Rats
The safety of Archachatina maginata haemolymph on biochemical and hematological indices of albino rats was investigated. Twelve white albino rats were grouped into 3 (A-C) of 4 animals each. Group A rats serve as control groups and received no treatment, while groups B and C received 2 and 4 ml/kg of the haemolymph respectively, for ten days. Haemolymph administration resulted in a significant increase in the serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total protein, albumin, total bilirubin and creatinine but significant decrease in the level of urea and chloride than the control rats. While serum bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, body weight gain, Relative organ weight were not significantly altered. However, there was a significant decrease in the relative kidney weight when compared with the control values. Haemolymph also produce significant dose dependent changes in erythrocyte, leucocyte and platelet indices when compared with control values. However, clinical observations for toxicological studies shows that the haemolymph did not produce any grossly negative behavioral changes, but increase water consumption was observed during the experimental periods. The results indicated changes in the investigated hematological and some biochemical parameters showing a more pronounced effect on the liver function than the renal function tests and at a higher dose than the lower dose. Hence, caution should be taken when using the haemolymph of Archachatina maginata for therapeutic purpose because it may also have some liver or tissue membrane damaging effect. 
Regulated Effects of Capsicum frutescens Supplemented Diet (C.F.S.D) on Fasting Blood Glucose Level, Biochemical Parameters and Body Weight in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats
Aim of the Study: This study investigates the effects of Capsicum frutescens supplemented diet (C.F.S.D) on fasting blood glucose level, biochemical parameters and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats.
Experimental Design: 130 – 150g healthy forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups as following; Group 1 served as a normal control and received normal feed-. Group 2 (Diabetic control) received normal feed-. Group 3 (Diabetic test 1) received normal feed + 1g Capsicum frutescens.-. Group 4 (Diabetic test 2) received normal feed + 2g Capsicum frutescens.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka and the feeding lasted for three weeks. At the end of the experiments, the animals were sacrificed, blood samples were collected and then the serum was further subjected to biochemical analysis using biochemical analyzer (Reflotron Plus).
Results: AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, Creatinine, Uric acid, total cholesterol and fasting blood sugar level in serum were increased however the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) of serum was decreased in diabetic control (group 2), compared with non-diabetic control (group 1). The administered Capsicum frutescens in the diet at 1g and 2g doses significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose level as well as the serum level of AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, Creatinine, Uric acid, total cholesterol, compared with diabetic control. Serum HDL was also significantly increased when compared with diabetic control P<0.05. Decrease in body weight in diabetic control group and increased in body weight of 1gand 2g Capsicum frutescens supplemented diet groups were also observed.
Conclusion: The observed improvement in the biochemical parameters, blood glucose levels and body weight of alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats by 1g and 2g Capsicum frutescens supplemented diet suggests Capsicum frutescens to possess, cardio-protective and anti-diabetic properties.
Recommendation: The incorporation of Capsicum frutescens as spice in the diet of individuals who are diabetic, hypertensive and obese, is worthy of recommendation. 
 Ramaiah, S.K., 2007. A toxicologist guide to the diagnostic interpretation of hepatic biochemical parameters. Food and chemical toxicology, 45(9), pp.1551-1557.
 Bender, R.A., Janssen, K.A., Resnick, A.D., Blumenberg, M., Foor, F. and Magasanik, B., 1977. Biochemical parameters of glutamine synthetase from Klebsiella aerogenes. Journal of bacteriology, 129(2), pp.1001-1009.
 Santacruz, A., Collado, M.C., Garcia-Valdes, L., Segura, M.T., Martin-Lagos, J.A., Anjos, T., Marti-Romero, M., Lopez, R.M., Florido, J., Campoy, C. and Sanz, Y., 2010. Gut microbiota composition is associated with body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women. British Journal of Nutrition, 104(1), pp.83-92.
 Bashir, L., K. Shittu, O., B. Busari, M., Sani, S. and I. Aisha, M. (2015) “Safety Evaluation of Giant African Land Snails (Archachatina maginata) Haemolymph on Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Albino Rats”, Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(3), pp. 122-130. doi: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/16393.
 Anthony, O. E., Ese, A. C. and Lawrence, E. O. (2013) “Regulated Effects of Capsicum frutescens Supplemented Diet (C.F.S.D) on Fasting Blood Glucose Level, Biochemical Parameters and Body Weight in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 3(3), pp. 496-507. doi: 10.9734/BJPR/2013/3256.