Latest News on Anticancer Research: Dec – 2019

Flavonoids: Promising anticancer agents

Flavonoids area unit polyphenolic compounds that area unit ubiquitously in plants. they need been shown to possess a spread of biological activities at nontoxic concentrations in organisms. The role of dietary flavonoids in cancer hindrance is wide mentioned. Compelling information from laboratory studies, medicine investigations, and human clinical trials indicate that flavonoids have necessary effects on cancer chemoprevention and therapy. several mechanisms of action are known, together with matter inactivation, antiproliferation, cell cycle arrest, induction of cell death and differentiation, inhibition of maturation, antioxidation and reversal of multidrug resistance or a mixture of those mechanisms. supported these results, flavonoids is also promising malignant tumor agents. [1]

New Colorimetric Cytotoxicity Assay for Anticancer-Drug Screening

We have developed a fast, sensitive, and cheap methodology for activity the cellular supermolecule content of adherent and suspension cultures in 96-well microtiter plates. the strategy is appropriate for normal laboratory functions and for terribly large-scale applications, like the National Cancer Institute’s disease-oriented in vitro anticancer-drug discovery screen, which needs the employment of many million culture wells p.a.. Cultures mounted with acetic acid were stained for half-hour with zero.4% (wt/vol) sul-forhodamine B (SRB) dissolved in I Chronicles carboxylic acid. Unbound dye was removed by four washes with I Chronicles carboxylic acid, and protein-bound dye was extracted with ten m M unbuffered Tris base [tris (hydroxymethyl)aminomethane] for determination of optical density in an exceedingly computer-interfaced, 96-well microtiter plate reader. [2]

Apoptosis induced by anticancer drugs

Most of the cytotoxic antitumor medicine in current use are shown to induce programmed cell death in vulnerable cells. the very fact that disparate agents, that move with totally different targets, induce death with some common options (endonucleolytic cleavage of polymer, changes in chromatin granule condensation) suggests that toxicity is set by the power of the cell to interact this alleged ‘programmed’ death. The mechanism of the coupling of a stimulation (drug-target interaction) to a response (cell death) isn’t proverbial, however modulation of this coupling could have an effect on the end result of drug treatment. This review surveys the recent proof that supports the thought that the drug-target interaction in and of itself isn’t the only determinant of cellular sensitivity of cytotoxic medicine. [3]

Synergistic activity of Hsp90 inhibitors and anticancer agents in pancreatic cancer cell cultures

Heat shock supermolecule ninety (Hsp90) could be a wide investigated target for antitumour medical care. The experimental Hsp90 inhibitors ICPD47 and ICPD62 incontestible antitumour activity against body part, sarcoma and cervical neoplastic cell lines. However, their antitumour activity has not been investigated against carcinoma cell lines however, and there aren’t any information concerning synergistic activity of those compounds together with clinically used antitumour agents. carcinoma cell lines, MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 were exposed to ICPD47 and ICPD62 alone and in combos with antimetabolites gemcitabine (GEM), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and topoisomerase substance antibiotic drug (DOX). Effects on cell viability were determined by MTT assay. [4]

In vitro Anticancer Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants from Oman

This paper reports in vitro metastatic tumor activity of resolvent, chloroform, ester, alcohol and water extracts obtained from twelve (12) medicative plants together with succulent dhufarensis, Calotropis procera, gymnosperm genus servaschanica, Lawsonia inermis, Maytenus dhofarensis, Moringa peregrina, rosid dicot genus senensis, pomegranate tree, Rhazya stricta, asterid dicot genus incanum, genus Teucrium mascatense and Zataria Japanese rose collected from Asian nation. Crude alcohol extracts ready by maceration of plant materials in alcohol were Kupchan divided to administer resolvent, chloroform, ester, alcohol and binary compound fractions.  Cytotoxicities of the ready fractions were measured by Alamar blue assay against female internal reproductive organ neoplastic cell line (MCAS) and carcinoma cell line (MDA MB231). 13 extracts from 5 plants C. procera, J. servaschanica, M. dhofarensis, S. incanum and T. mascatense were found active against MCAS; resolvent extract from J. servaschanica was the foremost active followed by chloroform extract from leaves of S. incanum (IC50 = eight.50 and 10.90 µg/ml, respectively). [5]

Reference

[1] Ren, W., Qiao, Z., Wang, H., Zhu, L. and Zhang, L., 2003. Flavonoids: promising anticancer agents. Medicinal research reviews, 23(4), (Web Link)

[2] Skehan, P., Storeng, R., Scudiero, D., Monks, A., McMahon, J., Vistica, D., Warren, J.T., Bokesch, H., Kenney, S. and Boyd, M.R., 1990. New colorimetric cytotoxicity assay for anticancer-drug screening. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 82(13), (Web Link)

[3] Hickman, J.A., 1992. Apoptosis induced by anticancer drugs. Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, 11(2), (Web Link)

[4] Synergistic activity of Hsp90 inhibitors and anticancer agents in pancreatic cancer cell cultures
Simonas Daunys, Daumantas Matulis & Vilma Petrikaitė
Scientific Reports volume 9, (Web Link)

[5] Said, S., Tamimi, Y., Akhtar, M., Weli, A., Al-Khanjari, S., & Al-Riyami, Q. (2017). In vitro Anticancer Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants from Oman. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 15(5), (Web Link)

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