Short-course Empiric Antibiotic Therapy for Patients with Pulmonary Infiltrates in the Intensive Care Unit: A Proposed Solution for Indiscriminate Antibiotic Prescription
Inappropriate antibiotic use for pulmonic infiltrates is common within the medical care unit (ICU). we have a tendency to sought-after to plan AN approach that may minimize uncalled-for antibiotic use, recognizing that a gold commonplace for the identification of health facility respiratory illness doesn’t exist. in a very irregular trial, clinical pulmonic infection score (CPIS) (Pugin, J., R. Auckenthaler, N. Mili, J. P. Janssens, R. D. Lew, and P. M. Suter. identification of ventilator-associated respiratory illness by bacteriological analysis of medical instrument and nonbronchoscopic “blind” bronchoalveolar irrigation fluid. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1991;143: 1121–1129) was used as operational criteria for decision-making concerning antibiotic medical aid. Patients with CPIS ⩽ vi (implying low probability of pneumonia) were irregular to receive either commonplace medical aid (choice and period of antibiotics at the discretion of physicians) or antibiotic drug monotherapy with evaluation at three d; antibiotic drug was interrupted if CPIS remained ⩽ vi at three d. Antibiotics were continuing on the far side three d in ninetieth (38 of 42) of the patients within the commonplace as medical aid compared with twenty eighth (11 of 39) within the experimental medical aid cluster (p = zero.0001). 
Antibiotic Prescription Rates for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in US Ambulatory Settings
Context throughout the Nineties, antibiotic prescriptions for acute tract infection (ARTI) minimized within the us. The property of these changes is unknown.
Objective To assess trends in antibiotic prescriptions for ARTI.
Design, Setting, and Participants The National mobile medical aid Survey and National Hospital mobile medical aid Survey knowledge (1995-2006) were wont to examine trends in antibiotic prescription rates by antibiotic indication and sophistication. Annual survey knowledge and census denominators were combined in 2-year intervals for rate calculations.
Main Outcome Measures National annual visit rates and antibiotic prescription rates for ARTI, as well as otitis (OM) and non-ARTI. 
Antibiotic Prescription Rates Vary Markedly Between 13 European Countries
There is a scarcity of information on antibiotic utilization in most European countries. during this study, data concerning the amount of antibiotic prescriptions was obtained for Oesterreich, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Holland, Portugal, Kingdom of Spain and also the Britain from the Institute for Medical Statistics Health world Services within the Britain. For Denmark and Sweden the knowledge was obtained from the Danish Medicines Agency (Laegemiddelstyrelsen) and also the National Corporation of Swedish Pharmacies (Apoteket AB), severally. Between one994 and 1997 the amount of prescriptions per 1,000 inhabitants increased in France and Balkan country while Portuguese Republic, Kingdom of Spain and Sweden rumored a decrease. In 1997, Greece (1,350), Spain (1,320) and Belgium (1,070) had the very best numbers of antibiotic prescriptions per one,000 inhabitants within the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical arrangement for medication cluster J01 whereas Holland (390), Sweden (460) and Oesterreich (480) had very cheap. 
Reducing antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory tract infections in family practice: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating a multifaceted peer-group-based intervention
Irrational antibiotic use for tract infections (RTI) may be a major driver of microorganism resistance. The aim of this study was to guage the result of a varied peer-group based mostly intervention reaching to scale back RTI-related antibiotic prescriptions in medical practice. This was a cluster randomised controlled trial with pre- and follow-up measuring. The intervention was enforced through PharmacoTherapy Audit conferences (PTAM) within which family physicians (FPs) and pharmacists collaborate. Four PTAM teams received the intervention consisting of: (1) FP communication skills coaching, together with communication regarding delayed prescribing; (2) implementation of antibiotic prescribing agreements in FPS’ Electronic Prescribing Systems; (3) quarterly feedback figures for FPs. 
Antibiotic Prescription Pattern in Bacterial Opportunistic Infections among Patients Stabilized on HAART in a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in North-East Nigeria
Introduction: The violent insurgence in northeast African nation has uprooted folks from their homes and suggests that of living and has created it more and more troublesome to afford the value of HIV/AIDS care services. microorganism infections square measure the foremost often encountered infection among patients stabilised on extremely active antiretroviral medical care [HAART]. it’s crucial that antibiotics stay cheap to confirm patients will have monetary access to effective treatment.
Objectives: to see the prevalence of microorganism opportunist infections, determine ordinarily prescribed antibiotics and quantify the value of antibiotic treatments. 
 Singh, N., Rogers, P., Atwood, C.W., Wagener, M.M. and Yu, V.L., 2000. Short-course empiric antibiotic therapy for patients with pulmonary infiltrates in the intensive care unit: a proposed solution for indiscriminate antibiotic prescription. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 162(2), (Web Link)
 Grijalva, C.G., Nuorti, J.P. and Griffin, M.R., 2009. Antibiotic prescription rates for acute respiratory tract infections in US ambulatory settings. Jama, 302(7), (Web Link)
 Mölstad, S., Lundborg, C.S., Karlsson, A.K. and Cars, O., 2002. Antibiotic prescription rates vary markedly between 13 European countries. Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases, 34(5), (Web Link)
 Reducing antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory tract infections in family practice: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating a multifaceted peer-group-based intervention
Marcia Vervloet, Marianne A Meulepas, Jochen W L Cals, Mariëtta Eimers, Lucas S van der Hoek & Liset van Dijk
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine volume 26, Article number: 15083 (2016) (Web Link)
 Otor Onah, P., Abdul Lateef, S. and Kaigamma, A. Y. (2018) “Antibiotic Prescription Pattern in Bacterial Opportunistic Infections among Patients Stabilized on HAART in a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in North-East Nigeria”, Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17(3), (Web Link)