Latest News on Alloxan: September 2021


Effect of aloes on blood glucose levels in normal and alloxan diabetic mice

The acute and chronic effects of the exudate of Aloe barbadensis leaves and its bitter principle were studied on plasma glucose levels of alloxan-diabetic mice. Aloes was administered orally, 500 g/kg, and the bitter principle was administered intraperitoneally, 5 mg/kg. The hypoglycemic effect of a single oral dose of aloes on serum glucose level was insignificant whereas that of the bitter principle was very highly significant and extended over a period of 24 h with maximum hypoglycemia observed at + 8 h. In chronic studies, aloes was administered twice daily and the bitter principle was administered once a day for 4 days. The maximum reduction in plasma glucose level was observed at the 5th day in both cases. The hypoglycemic effect of aloes and its bitter principle may be mediated through stimulating synthesis and/or release of insulin from the β-cells of Langerhans. [1]

Hypoglycaemic effect of Musa sapientum L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

Musa sapientum L. (‘Ney Poovan’) commonly known as ‘banana’ is mainly used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Oral administration of 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 g/kg of chloroform extract of the Musa sapientum flowers (MSFEt) for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and an increase in total haemoglobin, but in the case of 0.25 g/kg the effect was highly significant. It also prevents decrease in body weight. Oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in experimental diabetic rats in which there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in animals treated with MSFEt and the effect was compared with glibenclamide. Thus the study shows that MSFEt has hypoglycaemic action. [2]


EXPERIMENTAL diabetes mellitus in dogs has been produced by pancreatectomy (Mehring and Minkowski, 1890; Allen, 1914) and by treatment with anterior pituitary extract (Houssay, Biasotti and Rietti, 1932; Evans, Meyer, Simpson and Reichert, 1932). The possibility that a third, or chemical, type of diabetes may be produced was first suggested by Dunn, Sheehan and McLetchie (1943). They found that alloxan has a specific necrosing action on both the pancreatic islet cells and the epithelium of the renal convoluted tubules when injected into rabbits intravenously or intraperitoneally in doses of 100 to 500 mg. per kg. Previously, Jacobs (1937) had observed that similar doses of alloxan produce in rabbits an initial hy-perglycemia followed by severe and prolonged hypoglycemia of which most of the animals die unless glucose injections are given; Jacobs, however, did not report histologic studies. Dunn and co-workers confirmed the production of alloxan hypoglycemia and found that it is accompanied by a marked rise of blood urea nitrogen. [3]

Hypoglyceamic Effect of Methanolic Extract of Pergularia daemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidiabetic potential of Pergularia daemiamethanolic extract (PD) on alloxan-induced diabetic mice.
Methods: Diabetes was induced using alloxan (150mg/kg). Different doses of the methanolic extract of P. daemia were prepared and administered orally. The alloxan-induced diabetic mice were treated with 200, 400 and 1000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) methanolic extract of Pergularia daemia and the blood glucose levels were measured over 4 hrs.
Results: All doses of the extract (200, 400 and 1000 mg/kg b.w) significantly (p<0.0001) lowered fasting blood glucose level after treatment. The hypoglycaemic effect of the methanolic extract was also compared with that of an oral dose of glibenclamide under the same conditions. The extract showed significant (p<0.05) hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The glucose half-life (t1/2G) (p<0.0001), Mean Glucose Residence Time (MRTG) (p<0.0001), and the area under glucose concentration time curve (AUC0-4hG) (p<0.05) were high in control group compared to the alloxan-induced mice treated with P. daemia extract.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that methanolic extract of the plant of Pegularia daemiapossess hypoglycaemic activity. [4]

Antidiabetic Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Nardostachys jatamansi in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

A review of literature indicates that diabetes mellitus was fairly well known and well conceived as an entity in India with complications like angiopathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, and causing neurological disorders. The antidiabetic study was carried out to estimate the anti hyperglycemic potential of Nardostachys Jatamansi rhizome’s hydro alcoholic extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats over a period of two weeks. The hydroalcoholic extract HAE1 at a dose (500mg/kg) exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity than extract HAE2 at a dose (500mg/kg) in diabetic rats. The hydroalcoholic extracts showed improvement in different parameters associated with diabetes, like body weight, lipid profile and biochemical parameters. Extracts also showed improvement in regeneration of β-cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. Histopathological studies strengthen the healing of pancreas by hydro alcoholic extracts (HAE1& HAE2) of Nardostachys Jatamansi, as a probable mechanism of their ant diabetic activity. [5]


[1] Ajabnoor, M.A., 1990. Effect of aloes on blood glucose levels in normal and alloxan diabetic mice. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 28(2), pp.215-220.

[2] Pari, L. and Maheswari, J.U., 1999. Hypoglycaemic effect of Musa sapientum L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 68(1-3), pp.321-325.

[3] Goldner, M.G. and Gomori, G., 1943. Alloxan diabetes in the dog. Endocrinology, 33(5), pp.297-308.

[4] Sijuade, A.O., Omotayo, O.O. and Oseni, O.A., 2014. Hypoglyceamic effect of methanolic extract of Pergularia daemia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, pp.2614-2621.

[5] Aleem, M.A., Asad, B.S., Mohammed, T., Khan, R.A., Ahmed, M.F., Anjum, A. and Ibrahim, M., 2014. Antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Nardostachys jatamansi in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.4665-4673.

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