Evaluation of Infiltration of Immunological cells (Tumour Associated Tissue Eosinophils and Mast cells) in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Using Special Stains
Aim: Our study aimed to evaluate the infiltration of tissue eosinophils and mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) by using special stains.
Study Design: Comparative study.
Place of Study: Sharad Pawar Dental College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra.
Methodology: The study was carried out with the sample size of 30 histopathologically diagnosed cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma and comparison of infiltration of these (tissue eosinophil and mast cells) inflammatory cells with control (normal) group of patients, was done by using special stains. Special stains are wonderful because they allow us to see which we cannot see with routine Haematoxylin and eosin stain. Special stains were used to demonstrate tissue eosinophils and mast cells. Carbol Chromotrope and congo red were used for tissue eosinophil and for mast cells staining toluidine blue and thionin were used.
Results: The comparison of infiltration of tissue eosinophil and mast cell in OSCC with control group (normal) of patients shows significantly increased infiltration of these immunological cells in OSCC group of patients (P<0.05). We also found that among special stains carbol chromotrope is better than congo red for demonstration of tissue eosinophils and toluidine blue shows better staining intensity for mast cells than thionin.
Conclusion: We conclude that both inflammatory cells i.e. number of tissue eosinophils and mast cell infiltration is increased in OSCC. Special stains (carbol chromotrope and toluidine blue) are inexpensive and time saving rapid process for microscopic evaluation of infiltration of immunological cells (tissue eosinophil and mast cell) in tumour stroma.
Aggressive Recurrent Giant Cell Tumour of Distal Ulna with Pulmonary Metastasis: A Case Report
Pulmonary metastasis rarely originates from a benign tumour, but may occur from giant-cell tumours of bone (GCT). It occurs most frequently in recurrent cases and may result in poor outcomes. We report a case with pulmonary metastases from huge ulcerated recurrent GCT at distal ulna, from diagnostic to limb salvage surgery procedure. Five months after surgery, unfortunately he passed away due to pulmonary metastases.
EVALUATION OF CIRCULATING IMMUNE COMPLEXES IN PATIENTS WITH MALIGNANT AND PRE-MALIGNANT DISEASE CONDITIONS OF THE BREAST IN SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA
Background: Breast cancer remains intractable and is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women globally. In Nigeria, the incidence of breast cancer is increasing with late presentation and poor clinical outcome. Human breast cancer cells have long been shown to possess tumour neoantigens with some genetic variables and expressions in different racial/ethnic groups and this may result in the production of specific circulating immune complexes. Circulating immune complexes have been associated with breast cancer and effectively utilized for diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment in advanced countries. There is need therefore, for similar studies aimed at establishing the clinical utility of CIC in South-East Nigerian environment.
Patients and Methods: Circulating immune complexes were estimated in 64 breast cancer (24 early stage and 40 advanced stage breast cancer), 40 benign breast tumour patients and 40 apparently healthy age-matched control subjects by immunoenzymatic assay. The subjects were recruited from two hospitals in Ebonyi and Enugu States, Nigeria. The CIC estimation was done in pre-treatment and at intervals (3 and 6 months) after various forms of treatment in cancer patients and benign breast tumor and results compared.
Results: Our results showed incidence of raised pre-treatment CIC in 28%, 15% and 0.05% of the breast cancer patients, benign breast tumor and apparently healthy age-matched control respectively. No significant differences in CIC were found between treatment and disease groups. The highest levels in mean CIC were seen in the advanced stage breast cancer patients and the mean value was greater than that of the controls.
Conclusion: The diagnostic utility of CIC is therefore queried probably due to increased triggers for immunocomplex formation in this environment. There is need therefore, for development of antigen-specific CIC determinations that may have diagnostic and or prognostic value in this racial/ethnic environment.
UROTHELIAL CARCINOMA STUDY OF EXPRESSION AND AMPLIFICATION OF HUMAN EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2 (HER-2/neu) IN SIDI BEL ABBES, ALGERIA
Background: The HER-2 protein or p185her2 is a membrane receptor with tyrosine kinase activity encoded by HER-2/neu gene. Overexpression of HER 2/neu has been observed in many human cancers, including bladder cancer. In our study, the expression of HER-2 protein is determined in the urothelial carcinoma, also known as Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC).
Patients and Methods: The study population consisted of 26 surgical specimens of TCC of bladder Tissue specimens were neutral formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded. Standard histochemical and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were used for studied the expression of HER-2/neu completed with Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) when was necessary. The results were graded 0 as negative and 3 as positive and 1, 2 confirmed by FISH.
Results: Overall incidence of HER-2/neu overexpression and amplification was 69% (18 of 26) cases. Overexpression and amplification of HER-2/neu was not dependent to histological subtype (P=0.66), grade (P=0.66) or clinical subtype (P=0.39) and was more appeared in the patients with advanced stage, high grade of tumour.
Conclusions: These results are encouraging us the possibility to treat the patients with urothelial of bladder with high grade and advanced clinical stage, but determining the true contribution of trastuzumab requires a randomized trial.
Genetic Transformation in Brassica juncea L. using Wild Types and Shooter Mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the Regeneration Response
Different wild types of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and their shooter mutants were used for infection of in vitro grown Brassica juncea and the resultant tumour / tumour infection sites were cultured on Murashige and Skoog s basal medium supplemented with cefotaxime. The tumours induced by wild nopaline type of A. tumefaciens Ã¯Â¿Â½ C 58 and T 37 and their shooter mutant 3851 produced tumours which spontaneously differentiated shoots on Murashige and Skoog s medium. However, the octopine type B 653 and their shooter mutant pGV 2219, pGV 2215, pGV 2239, pGV 2235 and pGV 2298 either produced a very small tumour or did not produce any tumour. The tumour or infection site of octopine type of A. tumefaciens when cultured on Murashige and Skoog s basal medium although produced calli, did not show any regeneration of shoots. The tumours and regenerated plants of nopaline wild type (C58 and T37) and shooter mutant pGV 3851 showed the presence of nopaline dehydrogenase. The tumours or infection site of octopine wild type (B 653) and their shooter mutants pGV 2219 and pGV 2215 showed the presence of octopine dehydrogenase, while pGV 2235, 2239 and 2298 did not show any octopine dehydrogenase. The regenerated shoots from tumours of nopaline type and corresponding shooter mutant did not root, but could be grafted on to normal plants and grown to maturity.