Iraqi Cephalometric Standard Norms

Objective: To establish a more accurate reliable standard value of the widely used

cephalometric parameters for the Iraqi Arab adults and comparing them to the norms of Caucasians


Materials and Methods: A meta-analysis of the pertinent cephalometric studies of Iraqi adults for

period confined between 1988 to 2017 was conducted. 27 of the total of 92 collected studies were met

the inclusion criteria. The selected studies have involved the published articles and unpublished

master theses, all of them exhibit numerical data for both genders of Iraqi Arab individuals who have

class I skeletal pattern with normal occlusion. Selection of 35 parameters took place, included mostly

used skeletodental cephalometric measurements to be evaluated and compared. Statistical tests

were applied to describe the means and SD, also to find out the statistical ethnic difference between

the Iraqis and Caucasians.

Results: The standard norms of many cephalometric parameters exhibited a significant gender

difference in Iraqi adults’ individuals, with greater linear hard tissues measurements in males, while

non-significant gender differences appeared in facial soft tissue profile. On the other hands, most of

the elected cephalometric parameters showed statistically significant differences between the Iraqi

Arab and Caucasians compares. Generally, the Iraqis had smaller craniofacial dimensions, maxillary

and mandibular skeletal retrusion and more convex profile.

Conclusions: Apparent sexual dimorphism in addition to significant ethnic difference requires the

adoption of gender as well as ethnic specified standard norms during the cephalometric analysis of

Iraqi Arab adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment, to reach an accurate diagnosis and treatment


Author (s) Details

Arkan Muslim Al. Azzawi

Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Babylon, Iraq.

Hasan Sabah Hasan

Department of Orthodontics, Khanzad Specialist and Teaching Centre, General Health Directorate in Hawler, Ministry of Health – KRG, Iraq.

Hayder A. Kadhim

Department of pediatrics, orthodontics and preventive dentistry (P.O.P), College of Dentistry, University of Kufa, Iraq.

Aymen Hameed Uraibi

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, University of Babylon, Iraq.

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