In the closed cosmic model, the horizon distance and volume of the universe are calculated. For t tme, the cosmic horizon distance distribution increases continuously, but for t > tme, it decreases. However, because to the shift of the universe space from flat to curved then closed in the interval 15.1261 Gyr t tme, the universe’s horizon volume exhibits a dramatic contraction in the range t = 0.5 Gyr tme. In the interval 39.3822 t 40.7521 Gyr, however, this distribution indicates a sudden spike in the range t = tme t due to the shift of the universe space from closed to curved to flat. The distributions of radiation mass, matter, and dark energy within the universe’s horizon volume are also studied. For the same reasons, these distributions show similar notable fluctuations as the universe’s horizon volume distribution. Up to t = 53221.5 yr, the mass of radiation dominates; beyond that, the mass of matter becomes bigger. Following then, both the distributions of radiation and matter decline, while the distribution of dark energy rises until t = 10.1007 Gyr, when dark energy’s mass dominates until t = tme. As a result, the dark energy distribution drops until t = 40.2892 Gyr, when the mass of matter resurfaces. At t = 53.6246 Gyr, the masses of both matter and radiation become so large that the intercluster void vanishes and galaxies begin to collide. In addition, not only will the intergalactic medium vanish, but galaxies will collide and merge, forming very compact and near cosmic bodies. Under the influence of central gravity, these extremely dense bodies will collide and merge in a series of collisions and mergers, causing the interstellar medium to evaporate and the universe to develop to a great crunch at tbc = 53.6251 Gyr. It’s worth noting that the universe’s horizon distance in the closed model at t = tme agrees well with the maximum horizon distances in the five generic cosmic models.**Author (S) DetailsDr. Fadel A. Bukhari**

Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

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