Investigating the Histopathological Changes in Multiple Fetal Tissues Exposed In-Utero to Zidovudine

Objective: To avoid vertical transmission of HIV infection, zidovudine, the first antiretroviral treatment, is used. The medication was prescribed to pregnant women without sufficient evidence of its efficacy for the foetus. The purpose of the present experiment is to study the effect of zidovudine in foetuses exposed to the drug in utero at a light microscopic stage. Materials and Methods: There were 60 Swiss mice divided into two control groups (n=20) and experimental groups (n=40). A 50 mg / kg / day dose was administered by mouth to the experimental group and an equal amount of regular saline to the control group was administered. The drug was given from day 8 to day 16 of gestation, and the animal was sacrificed on day 19. In 10 percent neutral formalin, foetuses collected after laparotomy were fixed and then subjected to a light microscopic analysis to determine histopathological changes. It studied H&E stained portions of the liver , lung, kidney , brain, and maternal ovary. Results: liver fat degeneration, degenerative changes in the kidney portion, alveoli dilatation with alveolar wall thinning, cerebral cortex microcystic degeneration were observed. The experimental group’s maternal ovary had a thin corpus luteum. Conclusion: In multiple foetal tissues of mice, we observed various histopathological changes that, while they could not be correlated with the previous works done by numerous researchers, our result may, however, project a composite image of the side effect of ZDV affecting almost all body tissues. An electron microscopic analysis of the same will be suggested to validate the adverse effect of the drug in more detail in different animals. Finally, the seriousness of the toxic impact of ZDV in children perinatally exposed to ZDV can be shown in years to come as children born to mothers exposed to ZDV may all have been below 20 years since it was only recommended for use in 1994.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Rajlakshmi Chongtham
Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS) Imphal, Manipur, India.

Prof. Asima Bhattacharyya
Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS) Imphal, Manipur, India.

Prof. Mohan Kumar
Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS) Imphal, Manipur, India.

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