Evaluation of Microbial Load in Fast Food Establishments in Kaduna Metropolis: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study


Fast food outlets and food vendors or street hawkers in Nigeria are among the many food manufacturing and dispensing establishments that have sprung up as a result of the growing human population. The indiscriminate actions of fast food restaurants are frequently linked to food illness in poor nations, particularly Nigeria. This situation could be the result of these countries’ inadequate food safety and cleanliness standards. As a result, a substantial amount of food is produced and supplied in an unfit state when it reaches the consumer. Food contamination could be caused by a variety of microbiological infections, chemicals, or other factors. and parasites that can enter the food chain at various points along the food preparation and production process. The microbiological load in some selected fast food businesses in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria, was assessed in this study. The study was led by five research objectives and questions. 174 fast-food restaurants were chosen for a descriptive cross-sectional study utilising a multistage sampling technique. Personal hygiene practises were evaluated, as well as the use of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles during food processing. The samples for bacteriological investigations of 1g of food were analysed in the lab (Tuwon Shinkafa, Tuwon Masara, Stew, Rice, and Bread). The majority of the fast food outlets tested positive for Pseudomonas spp. (50 percent), Salmonella spp. (86.7 percent), Shigella dysenteries (68.7%), Escherichia coli (20.0 percent), and Staphylococcus aureus (97.3 percent). The total number of germs found in all of the food samples was 2,659 cfu/g, with Bread having the highest number at 685 cfu/g and Tuwon Masara having the lowest at 629 cfu/g. The study also discovered that the most common bacteria in the samples is Staphylococcus aureus, which has 700 cfu/g, followed by Salmonella, which has 629 cfu/g. As a result, the most common germs found in food samples are due to inadequate personal hygiene, ambient sanitation, and overall cleanliness of dining utensils, as noted during the study. In the Kaduna metropolitan, it is advised that food handlers receive greater health education on personal cleanliness and HACCP application.

Author (S) Details

Suleiman Usman
Department of Environmental Health Science, Shehu Idris College of Health Sciences and Technology, Makarfi, Kaduna, Nigeria.

Opasola O. Afolabi
School of Allied Health and Environmental Science, College of Pure and Allied Science, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria.

Lateefat H. Modupe
School of Allied Health and Environmental Science, College of Pure and Allied Science, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria.

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