Assessment of Diversity in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Cultivars Using Agromorphological Traits


The cowpea is the second most important cash crop in Chad after peanuts, however the native varieties are not valued. This study’s objective was to assess the agromorphological diversity of 45 cultivars and the structure of that diversity using 18 descriptors. The majority of cowpea seeds grown for human consumption are kidney-shaped (84.44%), white (73.33%), and have a thin, rough integument (91.11%). White but not dehiscent, the pods are also white. Seven quantitative traits revealed highly significant variations. 73.04% of the variability was explained using principal component analysis. 97.78% of the classifications generated from the hierarchical ascending clustering were supported by discriminant factor analysis. The weight of the seed per pod, the length of the pod, the weight of the pod per plant, and the stage of maturity are used to categorise cultivars into 4 groups. Group I is distinguished by late cultivars with brief pods (PoL: 13.920.63 cm; Fl1: 872.42 days; Mat: 1081.80 days). The maximum pod weights (PoWP: 129.696.81 g) and seed weights per pod (SWPo: 3.980.09 g) were found in Group II cultivars. Cultivars exhibiting intermediate features are in Group III. The earliest cultivars are from Group IV and have long pods (PoL: 21.050.94 cm). It will be possible to increase cowpea productivity by utilising the intriguing cultivars and features.

Author(s) Details:

Nadjiam Djirabaye,
Institut Tchadien de Recherche Agronomique Pour le Développement, ITRAD, Bp : 5400, N’Djamena, Tchad.

Amos Nodjasse Doyam,
Centre Régional de Recherche Agronomique, ITRAD/CRRA-ZSD, Bébédjia, Bp: 31, Moundou, Tchad.

Le Diambo Bedingam,
Centre Régional de Recherche Agronomique, ITRAD/CRRA-ZSD, Bébédjia, Bp: 31, Moundou, Tchad.

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Keywords: Cowpea, cultivars, agromorphological variability, sudanian area, Chad

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