An Overview: Early Diagnosis of Gynecological Cancers in Ladies with Review of Literature

The most prevalent cancers in ladies are cervical, endometrial and Ovarian. The biomarker marker
Squam-ous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen, CK19 and immunosuppressive acidic pro-tein IAP are
raised in cervical squamous cell carcinomas. Endometrial cancer is a common cancer in women. In
75% of endometrial cancer cases, the tumor remains confined to the uterus and has a favorable
prognosis if early detected. The objective of this review is to elucidate the importance of the tumor
markers for early diagnosis of gynaecological malignancies which are vital and life saving. Similarly
the relevant biomarkers in combination are found to have positive predictive values and significant p
values in the endometrial and cer-vical cancer. In Cervix cancer the positive predictive value of these
markers combined is usually 92% – 95% and negative predictive value 93% – 96%. Sensitivity of
tumor markers combined CK19, SCC and immunosuppressive acidic protein IAP in Cervix cancer
detection is 95% and specificity 96%. The highest sensitivity was for SCC antigen (98.7%) while the
highest specificity was for Cytokeratin 19 (99.7%). The positive predictive value by combination of
CK19, SCC and IAP for the detection of Cervix cancer was 90% – 94%. In endometrial cancer the
sensitivity of tumor markers combined CA19-9, CA125, leptin, thymidine ki-nase, CEA, CA15-3, and
HE4 in endometrial cancer detection was 95% and specificity 96%. The highest sensitivity was for
CA125 (99.7%) while the highest specificity was for CA19-9 (95.7%) which revealed that the efficacy
of CA19-9 was more than that of CA125. The positive predictive value by com-bination of CA19-9,
CA-125 levels, HE4, CA15-3, leptin, thymidine kinase and CEA for the detection of Endometrial
cancer was 93%. For Gynecological malignancies namely Ovarian, Cervix and Endometrial cancers
screening with these novel tumor markers in combination which are significant to a particu-lar group of cancers.

Author (s) Details

Tanushri Mukherjee
Department of Pathology, Command Hospital Chandimandir, Chandigarh, India.

Soma Mukherjee
Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, AIIMS, Bhopal, India.

Rajat Dutta
Department of Surgery, Command Hospital, Kolkata, India.

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