A Review on Resistance Mechanisms in Bacterial Biofilm Formations

The goal of this review is to present the mechanisms that lead to antimicrobial treatment resistance in bacterial biofilms. Biofilm-forming bacteria are the source of chronic and recurrent illnesses. Joint prosthesis, intravenous catheters and stents, endotracheal tubes, and cardiovascular devices are also susceptible. The issue is massive since it leads to higher hospitalisation bills, frequent operations, and longer antibiotic use. Bacterial biofilms have different resistance mechanisms than planktonic cells. The following are some of them: Glycocalyx and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), enzyme-mediated antibiotic resistance, cell heterogeneity in metabolism and growth rate, persister cells, genetic adaptation and mutations, efflux pumps, adverse environmental conditions, outer membrane structure, bacteriophages, interactions between different types of bacteria in polymicrobial biofilms The type of microorganism determines whether mechanism or combination of processes is used. As a result, a better understanding of their function will aid in discovering ways to combat the dangerous illnesses produced by biofilms.

Author (S) Details

Nikiforos Rodis

Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece.

Vasiliki Kalouda Tsapadikou

Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece.

Charalampos Potsios

Department of Internal Medicine, University General Hospital of Patras, Greece.

Panagiota Xaplanteri

Department of Microbiology, University General Hospital of Patras, Greece.

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