A Review of the Past and the Present Cases of Human African Trypanosomiasis in South Sudan
Sleeping sickness, commonly known as human African trypanosomiasis, is a fatal parasite disease spread by tsetse flies. Early in the 20th century, there were initial reports of it in Southern Sudan; it was probably brought there during the colonial era. In 2011, South Sudan broke apart from Sudan. South Sudan is currently reconstructing its healthcare sector after the war damaged the nation’s infrastructure. A plan for the eradication of human African trypanosomiasis in all endemic nations was established by the World Health Organization. Although there are significant efforts being made by the National Ministry of Health of South Sudan and its international partners to control and eradicate human African trypanosomiasis, cases are still being recorded. The purpose of this research is to evaluate cases of human African trypanosomiasis, shed light on both historical and contemporary cases, and identify potential factors that may have contributed to the disease’s persistence in a few well-known geographic foci in the nation. A variety of relevant sources, including disease reports from the World Health Organization (WHO) from 1956 to 2018, were used to compile data on Human African Trypanosomiasis cases. The First Civil War (1955–1972), the post–Addis Ababa Accord (1973–1982), the Second Civil War (1983–2004), and the post–Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) as of 2005–2018 are the four historical eras into which HAT events were thus divided. The Second Civil War had the most HAT instances, 16,539 (52.3%), followed by 7,708 (24.37%) cases after the Addis Ababa Accord, 5,164 (16.33%) cases after the CPA, and 2,215 (7.0%) cases during the First Civil War, for a total of 31,626 cases. The use of efficient control techniques during the 1950s and 1960s may have contributed to the low prevalence of HAT. Political upheaval, instability, and civil unrest may have contributed to the Second Civil War’s high prevalence of HAT. There are currently no HAT cases recorded from the Akobo and Pachalla foci in South Sudan’s Jonglei State. With the exception of Raga in Western Bahr El-Ghazal State, all of the HAT’s former foci in South Sudan are still operational.
Yatta S. Lukou,
School of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Juba, P. O. Box 82, Juba, South Sudan and Saint Mary’s College of Rehabilitation, Juba, South Sudan.
Erneo B. Ochi,
University of Juba, Graduate College, P.O. Box 82 Juba South Sudan.
Please see the link here: https://stm.bookpi.org/RABS-V8/article/view/8194
Keywords: Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), past history, new foci, current trends, South Sudan