The study of chromosomes is cytogenetics; their structure and properties, chromosome activity during cell division, their effect on traits and factors that cause chromosome changes. The application of cytogenetics to clinical problems which occur in animal production is veterinary cytogenetics. It has been used to explain issues such as infertility and its forms, embryonic and foetal death, sexual and somatic growth defects and hybrid sterility, prenatal sex determination and other forms of chromosomal abnormalities as well. Via traditional and banded karyotyping techniques and molecular cytogenetic techniques, these are accomplished. While traditional techniques are still useful and widely used, as a result of developments in molecular cytogenetic techniques, such as fluorescent in situ hybridization and array-based techniques, the essence of cytogenetics has gradually changed. In both molecular diagnostics and basic science, these developments are evident. The combination of traditional and molecular cytogenetics has given rise to techniques of high resolution that have made it possible to research fundamental questions about biological processes. It helps the study of inherited syndromes, tumorigenesis processes at the molecular level, the organisation of the genome and the determination of chromosome homologies between organisms. It makes it easy to pick the animals in the breeding programmes and other essential aspects of the development of animals. Molecular cytogenetics has now substantially reduced the presence of a large resolution distance between conventional cytogenetic techniques and techniques in molecular biology. We addressed a variety of techniques used in cytogenetics and their methodologies in this paper, and suggest where the benefits of animal production should be based in the future. The applications of these approaches have now transcended the limits of low-resolution chromosomal aberration diagnostics and are now well known in basic functional and comparative study.
Muhammad Sanusi Yahaya
Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra, Malaysia and Department of Theriogenology and Animal Production, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.
Mohd Shahrom Salisi
Department of Preclinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra, Malaysia.
Nur Mahiza Md. Isa
Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra, Malaysia.
Abd Wahid Haron
Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra, Malaysia.
Innocent Damudu Peter
Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra, Malaysia and Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.
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