News Update on Water Resources Research: March – 2019

Spatial and Temporal Trend of Water Resources in Beijing, China during 1999-2012 and Its Impact Analysis

Aims: The objective of this research is to understand and analyze the trend of water resources and its effects on land subsidence, vegetation cover change, and water supply reservoir drawdown in Beijing, China.
Study Design: This research combined both field monitoring data and remote sensing data to study the water resource change and its impacts in the City of Beijing, China.
Place and Duration of Study: This study water resource record data during 1999-2012 and the Landsat TM or ETM+ data in the same period to analyze the changes of water resources in the City of Beijing. The water level and water surface change of the Guanting Reservoir as a major urban water supply was analyzed since 1979 in confirmation of the trend of water resource change.
Methodology: This research applied remote sensing data analysis, GIS spatial and spatial statistical analysis, and the conventional field monitoring data of water resources to understand and visualize the trend of water resource change and its environmental impacts in Beijing, China.
Results: This research shows that both surface water and ground water resources are declining owing to the decrease of precipitation in Beijing. In the meantime, the proportion of agricultural and industrial water consumptions was gradually reduced and that of urban and domestic water consumptions continuously increased. Land subsidence spatially coincides with groundwater level decrease, and the maximum quantity could reach five meters. Vegetation cover and NDVI index showed high correlation with precipitation in mountainous region, but does not reflect the natural water supply in plain regions in Beijing. The surface water area in the Guanting Reservoir drastically reduced since 1979.
Conclusion: The trend of water resource changes indicate that the water supply shortage in Beijing area was intensified. The more effective planning of economic development and urban growth in Beijing according its water resources is needed. [1]

Integrated Water Resources Models to Support Analysis of Integrated Regional Water Management Programs in California

Aims: Provide a review of key features and several applications of the family of Integrated Water Resources (IWR) models, as the key analytical tools used in evaluation of hydrologic conditions in support of the integrated regional water management (IRWM) programs in California.
Methodology: IWR models are a family of models consisting of the Integrated Groundwater and Surface water Model (IGSM), the Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM), and the IWFM Demand Calculator (IDC). IGSM is an integrated model that simulates the complete hydrologic cycle for a basin. The California Department of Water Resources (CADWR) has upgraded and enhanced the IGSM code and developed an enhanced version, called IWFM. In addition, CADWR extracted the land surface processes module of IWFM as an independent unit, called IDC, which can be used as a stand-alone model for estimating agricultural water demand, groundwater pumping, and deep percolation. The IWR models have been applied to many basins throughout California to evaluate hydrologic conditions, including evaluation of land and water use, surface water and groundwater flow, stream-aquifer interaction, reservoir operation, land subsidence, and regional water quality conditions. An ArcGIS-based Graphical User Interface provides a robust modeling platform for the IWR models.
Results: The IWR models have had significant success in analysis of various types of water resources projects, such as integrated regional water management programs, groundwater management and conjunctive use operations, groundwater recharge investigations, water transfer programs, water quality, water demand and supply analysis, seawater intrusion, and climate change vulnerability and adaptation analysis.
Conclusion: The IWR models are effective tools in analyzing the technical issues involved in integrated water management and planning in California. These IWR models are well suited for analysis of hydrologic conditions and alternative water management scenarios explored in various basin management and IRWM programs. [2]

Water Resources Dynamics and Vulnerability in Rusizi National Park (Burundi) from 1984 to 2015, in the Context of Climate Change and Global Warming

The study of water resources’ dynamics and vulnerability in Rusizi national Park aimed to achieve the following objectives: (1) to identify, characterize and map water bodies, (2) to analyze and explain their periodical evolutions and (3) to analyze the spatial transformation processes affecting them. It is a contribution to the knowledge of the Park’s water resources for the development of monitoring systems and the sustainability of their functions as strategic ecosystems. It is based on the diachronic analysis of land cover from multi-date Landsat images of years 1984, 1990 and 2011 (TM), 2000 (ETM+) and 2015 (OLI-TIRS), landscape ecology tools and socio-economic and climate data. Supervised classification of images allowed the identification of 9 to 10 land cover classes including water bodies, according to years. A total number of 17 water bodies were detected from 1984 to 2015. During this period, regularly detected and dried up water bodies represent 18.2% and 54.6% respectively. The rates of water bodies’ drying up were 69.2% in 2000 and 64.2% in 2015. Water bodies are experiencing a great deterioration in number, size and stability. The Park’s water coverage has decreased from 3.56% in 1984 to 2.43% in 2015. This corresponds to a decline of 31.2%. The water bodies’ stability, which was 75.70% between 1984 and 1990, represents only 42.78% between 1984 and 2015. The stability of individual water bodies is decreasing as well while low spatial connectivities are being observed between some close water bodies. The spatial transformation processes carrying these dynamics are patch enlargement, patch creation, patch attrition and patch dissection, depending on the period. Global warming, rainfall variability and farming activities like land drainage and irrigation are the most important threats to water resources. [3]

Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment: Research Needs

The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial research scale spanning from a tree leaf, to a segment of forest road, and large basins with mixed land uses. These studies clearly show the strong interactions among forests, global climate change, water quantity and quality, and human activities at multiple scales. Understanding the underlying processes of response of natural ecosystems and society to global climate change is essential for developing actionable science-based climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies and methodologies. Future research should focus on feedbacks among forests, climate, water, and disturbances, and interactions of ecohydrologic systems, economics and policies using an integrated approach. [4]

 

Reference

[1] Gong, H., Tang, T., Gong, Z., Li, X., Chen, Y., & Zhao, W. (2015). Spatial and Temporal Trend of Water Resources in Beijing, China during 1999-2012 and Its Impact Analysis. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change5(2), 176-188. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJECC/2015/13861

[2] Taghavi, A., Namvar, R., Najmus, S., & Cayar, M. (2013). Integrated Water Resources Models to Support Analysis of Integrated Regional Water Management Programs in California. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change3(3), 333-377. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJECC/2013/2672

[3] Elysée, N., Bienvenu, S., Thiam, A., Xavier, N., Thacienne, U., Gloriose, U., & Fabien, M. (2018). Water Resources Dynamics and Vulnerability in Rusizi National Park (Burundi) from 1984 to 2015, in the Context of Climate Change and Global Warming. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change8(4), 308-331. Retrieved from http://www.journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/27192

[4] Sun, G., & Segura, C. (2013). Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment: Research Needs. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change3(2), 119-126. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJECC/2013/6212

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