News Update on Sustainable Human Development Research: May – 2019

Mexico’s Struggle with Development between Global Compromises and National Development Plans

This article focuses on Mexico’s struggle with development—reflected within the country’s continued persistent impoverishment, inequality, lack of inclusion, and social mobility—as United Mexican States finds itself caught between international compromises (the Millennium Development Goals, 2000‐15; the property Development Goals, 2015‐30) on one hand and National Development Plans (NDP) on the opposite. I analyze 3 consecutive NDP since the transition to democracy in 2000 and appearance ahead to proclaimed changes within the “Project for the state 2018‐24.” I conjointly scrutinise of however international and national organizations have monitored and evaluated these problems. Doing thus allows us to spot, problematize, and mirror on wherever United Mexican States is heading with this specific struggle. it’s created, I argue, a specific dissonance or perhaps story regarding development entangled between grand documents mirroring international compromises and a rather bleak reality once reworked into domestic policies for development. [1]

Access to essential medicines in 195 countries: A human rights approach to sustainable development

In 2008 the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health published 72 right to health indicators in 194 health systems. We present a follow-up report of eight indicators for access to medicines to serve as a reference point for progress towards SDG Target 3.8 on essential medicines. Data for these eight indicators in 2015 were collected and compared with the 2008 report. Between 2008 and 2015 we observed increased numbers of constitutions recognising access to medicines (7–13 countries), countries with a national medicine policy (118–122) and with a national list of essential medicines (78–107). Public spending on pharmaceuticals decreased or rose modestly in most of the 44 countries. Median availability of a basket of lowest-priced generics increased in the public (63%–70% n = 9 countries) and private (84%–92% n = 10) sectors. Median child immunisation rates remained constant for measles (around 90%) and improved for three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (79%–86%). These eight indicators are useful and feasible, but should be further strengthened and expanded. Future monitoring exercises should use these indicators to screen progress and guide national governments’ action to ensure universal access to essential medicines as part of the right to health. [2]

The Comparative Economics of ICT, Environmental Degradation and Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

This study examines how information and communication technology (ICT) could be employed to dampen the potentially damaging effects of environmental degradation in order to promote inclusive human development in a panel of 44 Sub-Saharan African countries. ICT is captured with internet and mobile phone penetration rates whereas environmental degradation is measured in terms of CO2 emissions per capita and CO2 intensity. The empirical evidence is based on fixed effects and Tobit regressions using data from 2000 to 2012. In order to increase the policy relevance of this study, the dataset is decomposed into fundamental characteristics of inclusive development and environmental degradation based on income levels (low income vs. middle income); legal origins (English Common law vs. French Civil law); religious domination (Christianity vs. Islam); openness to sea (landlocked vs. coastal); resource-wealth (oil-rich vs. oil-poor) and political stability (stable vs. unstable). Baseline findings broadly show that improvement in both of measures of ICT would significantly diminish the possibly harmful effect of CO2 emissions on inclusive human development. When the analysis is extended with the above mentioned fundamental characteristics, we observe that the moderating influence of both our ICT variables on CO2 emissions is higher in the group of English Common law, middle income and oil-wealthy countries than in the French Civil law, low income countries and oil-poor countries respectively. Theoretical and practical policy implications are discussed. [3]

Towards global data products of Essential Biodiversity Variables on species traits

Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) allow observation and reporting of global biodiversity change, but a detailed framework for the empirical derivation of specific EBVs has yet to be developed. Here, we re-examine and refine the previous candidate set of species traits EBVs and show how traits related to phenology, morphology, reproduction, physiology and movement can contribute to EBV operationalization. The selected EBVs express intra-specific trait variation and allow monitoring of how organisms respond to global change. We evaluate the societal relevance of species traits EBVs for policy targets and demonstrate how open, interoperable and machine-readable trait data enable the building of EBV data products. We outline collection methods, meta(data) standardization, reproducible workflows, semantic tools and licence requirements for producing species traits EBVs. An operationalization is critical for assessing progress towards biodiversity conservation and sustainable development goals and has wide implications for data-intensive science in ecology, biogeography, conservation and Earth observation. [4]

Impact of Poor Land Utilization on Sustainable Human Development in Ado-Odo/Ota of Ogun State, Nigeria

This research focuses on exploring the impact of poor utilization of land on sustainable human development. Poor land utilization is a serious global problem with diverse implications for socio-economic and sustainability of human development, particularly in the contemporary Nigerian societies. This study essentially seeks to understand the extent of involvement of local actors in utilization of land resources and connection between poor land utilization and incidence of poverty in Nigeria. The study engaged both Marxism and Vicious cycle of Poverty theories in advancing understanding on the subject matter. The research work engages cross-sectional research approach, which combines questionnaires, in-depth interview and focus group discussion in sourcing for useful information from selected communities in Ado-odo/Ota local government, Ogun state. Stratified sampling technique was engaged in selecting respondents for the administration of questionnaire while purposive sampling was engaged in selecting interviewees and discussants for interviews sessions. Data were analyzed using descriptive and content analysis.Finding from this study unearth how the socio-economic well-being of the country could be enabled courtesy of appropriate usage of its land resources. [5]

Reference

[1] Villanueva Ulfgard, R., 2019. Mexico’s Struggle with Development between Global Compromises and National Development Plans. Politics & Policy47(1), pp.50-78. (Web Link)

[2] Perehudoff, S.K., Alexandrov, N.V. and Hogerzeil, H.V., 2019. Access to essential medicines in 195 countries: A human rights approach to sustainable development. Global public health14(3), pp.431-444. (Web Link)

[3] Asongu, S.A., Nwachukwu, J.C. and Pyke, C., 2019. The Comparative Economics of ICT, Environmental Degradation and Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Social Indicators Research, pp.1-27. (Web Link)

[4] Towards global data products of Essential Biodiversity Variables on species traits

W. Daniel Kissling,Ramona Walls,Robert P. Guralnick

Nature Ecology & Evolutionvolume 2, pages1531–1540 (2018) (Web Link)

[5] Adetayo Fajobi, T. and Isaac Adeniran, A. (2016) “Impact of Poor Land Utilization on Sustainable Human Development in Ado-Odo/Ota of Ogun State, Nigeria”, Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 1(1), pp. 1-11. doi: 10.9734/ARJASS/2016/26998. (Web Link)

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *