News Update on Crop Protection Research: May – 2019

Natural products in crop protection

The tremendous increase in crop yields related to the ‘green’ revolution has been attainable partly by the invention and utilization of chemicals for cuss management. However, issues over the potential impact of chemicals on human health and therefore the surroundings has light-emitting diode to the introduction of latest pesticide registration procedures, like the Food Quality Protection Act within the u.  s.. These new rules have reduced the quantity of artificial pesticides accessible in agriculture. Therefore, the present paradigm of relying nearly solely on chemicals for cuss management may have to be reconsidered. New pesticides, as well as natural product-based pesticides square measure being discovered and developed to switch the compounds lost thanks to the new registration needs. This review covers the historical use of natural product in agricultural practices, the impact of natural product on the event of latest pesticides, and therefore the future prospects for natural products-based cuss management. [1]

Applied aspects of neonicotinoid uses in crop protection

Neonicotinoid pesticides comprise seven commercially marketed active ingredients: imidacloprid, acetamiprid, nitenpyram, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid, clothianidin and dinotefuran. The technical profiles and main variations between neonicotinoid pesticides, together with their spectrum of effectivity, are described: use for vector management, general properties and versatile application forms, particularly seed treatment. New formulations are developed to optimize the bioavailability of neonicotinoids through improved rain fastness, higher retention and spreading of the spray deposit on the leaf surface, combined with higher leaf penetration. Combined formulations with pyrethroids and alternative pesticides also are being developed with the aim of broadening the insecticidal spectrum of neonicotinoids and to exchange WHO category I product from older chemical categories. These innovative developments for life‐cycle management, together with the introduction of generic product, will, among following few years, flip neonicotinoids into the foremost necessary chemical category in crop protection. Copyright © 2008 Society of industry. [2]

RNAi-mediated crop protection against insects

Downregulation of the expression of specific genes through RNA interference (RNAi), has been wide used for genetic analysis in insects. the strategy has relied on the injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), that isn’t attainable for sensible applications in crop protection. in contrast, specific suppression of organic phenomenon in nematodes is feasible through feeding with dsRNA. This approach was thought to be infeasible in insects, however recent results have shown that dsRNA fed as a diet part are often effective in downregulating targeted genes. additional considerably, expression of dsRNA directed against appropriate insect target genes in transgenic plants has been shown to relinquish protection against pests, gap the means for a replacement generation of insect-resistant crops. [3]

The function of supplemental foods for improved crop establishment of generalist predators Orius insidiosus and Dicyphus hesperus

As with several biological management agents, scholar predators seldom survive prolonged periods of prey insufficiency. Towards up crop institution of 2 major predators utilized in North America, Orius insidiosus and Dicyphus Vesper, this study examined the role of supplemental foods in achieving bigger predator survival and quicker development. In controlled setting trials, biological process time and survival were compared for predators offered diets as well as genus Ephestia eggs, arthropod genus cysts, genus Typha spore, or combos of those. Nymphal biological process time was considerably shorter and survival bigger for each predators reared on diets that enclosed genus Ephestia eggs. curiously, D. Vesper may with success complete nymphal development on arthropod genus cysts whereas O. insidiosus couldn’t, alluding to elementary physiological variations between these predators. In greenhouse assays, D. Vesper was a lot of overabundant once six weeks when offered diets that enclosed genus Ephestia eggs either alone or together with spore or arthropod genus cysts relative to alternative diets. In distinction, solely diets of genus Ephestia eggs, genus Typha spore or their combination may considerably increase O. insidiosus crop abundance relative to the unfed management. Together, this work highlights necessary variations within the relative values of supplemental foods for scholar predators utilized in crop protection. it’s additionally significant in guiding biocontrol practitioners globally within the speedily growing sector of greenhouse vegetable production. [4]

Impacts and Management of Termites (Isoptera: Termitidae) among Smallholder Farmers In East Africa

Effective white ant management methods ought to involve a minimum of one in every of the following:

Provision of adequate food to discourage termites from assaultive crops.

Enhancing multiplication and proliferation of natural enemies (e.g. nematodes, fungus, bacteria, virus, ants, frogs, beetles and spiders).

Reduce vulnerability of crops through improved crop nutrition and facility for vigorous growth.

Integration of termite-repelling crops and plants within the farms.

Killing of termites e.g. use of termicide, physical destruction of the mound, killing of the queen.

In areas often laid low with termites, reconnaissance mission and management ought to be incorporated as regular parts of seasonal crop production trainings.

Particular stress ought to tend to non-chemical practices that have important co-benefits like increased soil health.

Effective and long management is predicated on combination of chemical and non-chemical practices – dig out mounds, kill the queen then spray with termicide. For fields that expertise white ant attacks each season, farmers ought to dress seed with termicide before planting. These chemicals ought to be used judiciously to cut back negative impact to the atmosphere and health risks to the farmers. [5]

Reference

[1] Dayan, F.E., Cantrell, C.L. and Duke, S.O., 2009. Natural products in crop protection. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry, 17(12), pp.4022-4034. (Web Link)

[2] Elbert, A., Haas, M., Springer, B., Thielert, W. and Nauen, R., 2008. Applied aspects of neonicotinoid uses in crop protection. Pest Management Science: formerly Pesticide Science, 64(11), pp.1099-1105. (Web Link)

[3] Price, D.R. and Gatehouse, J.A., 2008. RNAi-mediated crop protection against insects. Trends in biotechnology, 26(7), pp.393-400. (Web Link)

[4] The function of supplemental foods for improved crop establishment of generalist predators Orius insidiosus and Dicyphus hesperus

Roselyne M. Labbé, Dana Gagnier, Ana Kostic & Les Shipp

Scientific Reportsvolume 8, Article number: 17790 (2018) (Web Link)

[5] Otieno, H. M. O. (2018) “Impacts and Management of Termites (Isoptera: Termitidae) among Smallholder Farmers In East Africa”, Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 16(1), pp. 1-12. doi: 10.9734/JAERI/2018/44842. (Web Link)

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