Indigenous cowpea production and protection practices in Benin
A survey involving quite 129 farmers was administrated in 1998 and 1999 in Ouémé, Benin, to analyze the importance of pests and diseases as constraints to cowpea (Vigna placental mammal (L.) Walp.) production. Results indicated that within the Ouémé vale Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. and arthropod genus craccivora Koch area unit specific issues. Weeds like justicia anselliana (Nees) T. Anders, genus Ipomoea aquatica Forsskal and flower erecta L. were additionally reportable as being difficult . On the Ouémé highland Imperata cylindrica L. Beauv. was reportable to be a serious weed. Callosobruchus maculatus fabulous. and Bruchidius atrolineatus fabulous. might cause up to 100% loss at intervals some months in storage. Birds and rodents were additionally reportable. In bound areas on the highland, farmers have developed tormenter management ways supported native data. within the vale the population density of Eichhornia spesiosa (Mart) Solms. throughout flooding is employed by farmers to predict plant louse infestation. variety of plant species accustomed shield cowpea were reportable. In Gbékandji village, natural enemies like Rhabdepyris sp., Evania sp., and Chelonus sp., were determined. They were rare within the vale, wherever farmers suppose chemical management. Farmers reportable various hosts of cowpea pests from the families Fabaceae (eight species), Mimosaceae (two species), Ceasalpiniaceae (five species), Capparidaceae (two species) and liliopsid family (one species). supported the hierarchy of constraints, property integrated tormenter management technologies area unit being developed with farmers employing a democratic approach. 
Varietal intercropping and the yields and stability of cowpea production in semiarid Senegal
Crop productivity is low and varible below rainfed conditions in dry aones. This drawback is especially acute in northern African nation wherever productivity is also restricted by impotent soils. Studies were conducted to work out whether or not varietal intercrops of cowpea are higher custom-made to dry climates and impotent soils than sole crops cowpea. a similar experiment was conducted over 2 years in 3 locations that have different rain and soil fertility, and are representative of the most important cowpea-production zones of northern African nation. 2 varietal intercrops and 6 cultivars in sole crops were adult during a randomised complete block split-plot style with four replications. The split plots consisted of a starter chemical treatment (150 kg/ha of 6:9:8, N:P:K) and a bearing wherever no chemical was applied. The varietal intercrops consisted of alternating rows of a medium-cycle spreading variety (58-57) associate degreed an early erect cultivar (Bambey twenty one or American state Blackeye No. 5). The six cultivars adult as sole crops enclosed the 3 cultivars employed in the intercrops, and 3 others with spreading (N’diambour and Mougne) or semierect (Tvx 3236) growth habits, that are well custom-made to northern African nation.
Grain and fodder yield responded significantlu to chemical application at the 2 drier locations, Thilmakha and Louga, however not at the wetter location, Bambey, that had higher levels of soil atomic number 7 and phosphorus. there have been no genotype×fertilizer interactions. The varietal intercrops created higher yields of grain and fodder than the only crops at Thilmakha and Louga and had high land equivalency ratios (1.42 for grain and one.50 for hay), and on top of average stability. within the wetter and a lot of fertile location (Bambey), the performance of the varietal intercrops was intermediate compared to the only crops, and also the dense cover created it tough to reap the grain of the 2 cultivars within the intercrops one by one. These studies incontestible that intercrops of early erect and medium-cycle spreading cowpean will have higher and a lot of stable yields of grain and fodder than sole crops, conditions wherever drought and impotent soil limit crop production. 
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.)
Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.) may be a wide tailored, stress tolerant grain legume, vegetable, and fodder crop mature on regarding seven million HA in take hot regions of Africa, Asia, and therefore the Americas. This review focuses on major breeding achievements, current objectives, and future opportunities for cowpea improvement. Early maturing cultivars are developed with regionally acceptable grain quality and resistance to some necessary diseases and pests together with microorganism blight (Xanthomonas campestris), cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), cowpea plant louse (Aphis craccivora), cowpea curculio (Chalcodermus aeneus), root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica), cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus) and therefore the parasitic weeds Striga gesnerioides and Alectra vogelii. timing is very important in Africa and different regions as a result of early cultivars will escape drought and a few insect infestations, will offer the primary food and marketable product on the market from the present season, and might be mature during a various array of cropping systems. New early maturing cultivars with indeterminate growth habits are terribly effective within the very dry and hot atmosphere of the Sahel. Heat tolerant breeding lines are developed that have markedly higher pod set than most cultivars beneath high night temperature conditions. Development of cultivars with multiple resistances to organic phenomenon and abiotic stresses is a crucial current breeding objective. Earliness, delayed leaf senescence, and indeterminate growth habit ar characteristics that ar being combined to boost drought adaptation. within the future, high levels of resistance to vital insect pests like flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti), maruca pod borer (Maruca testulalis), genus Lygus (Lygus hesperus), and pod bugs (Clavigralla tomentosicollis and others) ought to known. Genes from wild cowpeas or connected genus Vigna species or biotechnology could also be necessary to develop cultivars with high levels of resistance to many of the foremost insect pests. 
Ethylene evolution by thrips-infested cowpea provides a basis for thrips resistance screening with ethephon sprays
Pests are major constraints to magnified cowpea production in tropical subsistence agriculture wherever money inputs are tiny. Breeding for cuss resistance is thus the foremost part of pest management ways for crop improvement. Of overriding economic importance among these pests are flower thrips [Megalurothrips sjostedti (Tryb.)] which can cause abscission of flower buds, flowers and peduncles, resulting in seed yield losses of up to 100 percent (refs one, 2). it’s been tough to use offered sources of moderate thrips resistance during a breeding programme as a result of thrips variation in time and area in field screening3. This paper reports that alkene is created once thrips infest cowpea peduncles. we’ve got used this truth to develop a screening technique exploitation the artificial phytohormone ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid), that once sprayed on the plant is translocated to actively-growing tissue, wherever it breaks right down to kind ethylene4–6. Cultivars liable to abscission caused by thrips conjointly show magnified abscission with ethephon treatment. The technique is also helpful in distinctive sources of resistance to different abscission-causing agents. 
Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of Cowpea Thresher for Small Scale Cowpea Farm Holders in Nigeria
Aims: To develop and valuate a reasonable, accessible, easy-to-operate and practical small-scale thresher machine to create cowpea farming a profitable venture.
Study Design: Fabrication and performance analysis.
Place and period of Study: Premises of DAF Technical Services, Ilorin, Nigeria, between Gregorian calendar month, 2017 and Gregorian calendar month, 2018.
Methodology: Construction of a cowpea thresher machine was applied by size and marking out the plate with the help of awl and cutter. The shaft was ironed and also the numerous elements were welded and assembled with the help of fasteners. The thresher was made-up of the feeding unit, that provided a gap through that the cowpea was introduced into the machine for separation. because the numerous elements of the cowpea thresher (threshing drum, the lower cotyloid (screen), the spikes and separating unit) were being assembled, dimension analysis was applied on 2 kinds of cowpea grains. This was meant to work out the screen sieve size.
Results: Findings from this study indicated the mean cowpea grain separation efficiencies of seventy one.40, 66.10, and 63.10% at a distinct speed of 472, 339, and 283 rev severally. the utmost turnout capability (59.78 kg/hr) was obtained at separation speed of 472 rev. This discovered that because the speed attenuate the separation potency, the turnout capability and grain loss conjointly attenuate, whereas broken grains area unit negligible.
Conclusion: The fancied cowpea thresher is thus, an acceptable machine with high potency to hold out necessary tiny scale post-harvest operations in cowpea production. 
 Kossou, D.K., Gbèhounou, G., Ahanchédé, A., Ahohuendo, B., Bouraïma, Y. and van Huis, A., 2001. Indigenous cowpea production and protection practices in Benin. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 21(2), pp.123-132. (Web Link)
 Thiaw, S., Hall, A.E. and Parker, D.R., 1993. Varietal intercropping and the yields and stability of cowpea production in semiarid Senegal. Field Crops Research, 33(3), pp.217-233. (Web Link)
 Ehlers, J.D. and Hall, A.E., 1997. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.). Field crops research, 53(1-3), pp.187-204. (Web Link)
 Ethylene evolution by thrips-infested cowpea provides a basis for thrips resistance screening with ethephon sprays
H. C. Wien & C. Roesingh
Naturevolume 283, pages192–194 (1980) (Web Link)
 Muhammed-Bashir, O. W., Oriola, K. O., Ogundeji, B. A. and Adesokan, M. A. (2018) “Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of Cowpea Thresher for Small Scale Cowpea Farm Holders in Nigeria”, Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 31(6), pp. 1-11. doi: 10.9734/cjast/2018/v31i629190. (Web Link)