Determination of carbohydrates in foods II.†—Unavailable carbohydrates

A fractionation and analytical procedure is described for the measurement of the unavailable carbohydrates in foods. The scheme provides values for water‐soluble polysaccharides, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. Tests wont to investigate the reliability of the methods are reported and therefore the results obtained with a variety of foodstuffs are presented. From the results obtained it’s possible to derive values for the composition of the cell‐wall material of those foods. The results are in agreement with more detailed studies of the composition of the cell walls of plants. [1]

Carbohydrates in chemistry and biology

Carbohydrate Chemistry and Glycobiology have witnessed a rapid expansion during the previous couple of years with the event of various new, imaginative and efficient syntheses which give further insight into structures and biological interactions of glycoconjugates. Glycosylation reactions are widely utilized in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and bio-active compounds. In biology and medicine oligosaccharides play a central role in immuno-stimulation, cancer or allergic responses. Glycoscience may be a very instructive example of how one common topic of interest stimulates both chemistry and biology to collectively open scientific frontiers. This synergy is formed visible during this work. Three leading experts within the fields of Glycochemistry and Glycobiology have invited numerous renowned authors to supply a comprehensive overview of the recent advances and findings in Glycoscience. This four-volume handbook presents an integrated and cutting-edge view, and covers all chemical aspects, like syntheses and analysis of carbohydrates and oligosaccharides, also because the biological role and activity of oligosaccharides and carbohydrate/protein interactions. [2]

Carbohydrates for training and competition

An athlete’s carbohydrate intake are often judged by whether total daily intake and therefore the timing of consumption in reference to exercise maintain adequate carbohydrate substrate for the muscle and central systema nervosum (“high carbohydrate availability”) or whether carbohydrate fuel sources are limiting for the daily exercise programme (“low carbohydrate availability”). Carbohydrate availability is increased by consuming carbohydrate within the hours or days before the session, intake during exercise, and refuelling during recovery between sessions. this is often important for the competition setting or for high-intensity training where optimal performance is desired. Carbohydrate intake during exercise should be scaled consistent with the characteristics of the event. [3]

Accessing the nursing behaviour of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edilus) on carbohydrates dynamics and photosystems

Nursing behaviour, also referred to as breastfeeding behaviour, is that the feeding of juvenile individuals with nutrients or proteins from matures especially in mammals. As a hypothetical phenomenon in bamboo forests, mature bamboos have transferred photoassimilates to young bamboos for recovering and rebuilding their photosystems especially in winter. This process is amid changes within the ability of photosystems and therefore the mass fraction of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs), structural carbohydrates (SCs), and lignin. We analysed carbohydrates and chlorophyll fluorescence to match the physiological traits in mature (age 2, 3, 4) and immature (age 1) Moso bamboos (Phyllostachys edilus) during a year using the Portable Chlorophyll Fluorometer (PCF) and therefore the Liquid Chromatographic (LC) method. [4]

A Comparative Study of the Glycating Power of Simple Carbohydrates in the Maillard Reaction by Means of Conceptual DFT Descriptors

This study features an assessment of multiple density functionals in calculating the molecular structures and inherent properties in simple carbohydrates participating in nonenzymatic glycation involving amino acids and proteins in Maillard reactions. Calculations of chemical reactivity descriptors is attained in each molecular system using Conceptual DFT. A cross-sectional comparison of results obtained through ∆SCF procedure is attained to see for accuracy and validity of the density functional in “Koopmans in DFT” (KID) procedure. The Fukui function indices and condensed dual descriptor ∆f(r) are wont to examine the active sites where nucleophilic and electrophilic attacks occur. The assessment identifies several relationships involving glycating power and reactivity descriptors. The latter are found capable for predicting glycating behavior in complex carbohydrates. [5]

Reference

[1] Southgate, D.A.T., 1969. Determination of carbohydrates in foods II.—Unavailable carbohydrates. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 20(6), (Web Link)

[2] Ernst, B., Hart, G.W. and Sinaÿ, P., 2008. Carbohydrates in chemistry and biology. Wiley Blackwell. (Web Link)

[3] Burke, L.M., Hawley, J.A., Wong, S.H. and Jeukendrup, A.E., 2011. Carbohydrates for training and competition. Journal of sports sciences, 29(sup1), (Web Link)

[4] Accessing the nursing behaviour of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edilus) on carbohydrates dynamics and photosystems
Shitephen Wang, Tsai-Huei Chen, En-U Liu & Chiung-Pin Liu
Scientific Reports volume 10, (Web Link)

[5] Frau, J. and Glossman-Mitnik, D. (2017) “A Comparative Study of the Glycating Power of Simple Carbohydrates in the Maillard Reaction by Means of Conceptual DFT Descriptors”, Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 21(1), (Web Link)

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