News Letter on Greenhouse Gas Research: March – 2019

Mitigating greenhouse emission and Ammonia Emissions from hold on suspension through the Addition of production Sugar and a Biological Additive

Livestock slurry stores are a key source of ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study evaluated the potential to reduce NH3, CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions by adding effective microorganisms (EM) and brewing sugar to beef cattle slurry in a replicated small-scale (1 litre slurry volume) experiment. The effect of EM and brewing sugar was explored at two concentrations (5 v/w and 10% w/w respectively) and in two environments (cold and warm) over a period of 30 days slurry storage. Greenhouse gas emissions were measured by taking headspace samples from the closed vessels over a 1 hour period, whilst relative NH3 loss was quantified at the same time by placing an acid trap within the closed headspace. Brewing sugar addition induced ‘self-acidification’ of the slurry, via lactic acid production and accumulation, resulting in a decrease in slurry pH from pH 7.8 to <4.5. This was effective in lowering average NH3 loss in the cold and warm environments by 40% and 70%, respectively. Methane emissions were also reduced following the addition of brewing sugar, by up to 75%, resulting in a reduction in the cumulative total GHG (N2O + CH4 + CO2) emission (expressed as CO2 equivalent; CO2e) of 34% and 85%, respectively. The total greenhouse gas emission (CO2e) during slurry storage was dominated by CH4, representing at least 59% of total CO2e emitted. Effective microorganisms had little impact on NH3 and GHG emission, and are not deemed a useful mitigation strategy for these gases. [1]

Assessment of Leachate Pollution Index and gas Emission at MSW Dumpsites on Ganga stream at Varanasi, India

Recent scientific attention has shown serious concern towards municipal solid wastes (MSW) as a supply of greenhouse gases and focused leachate. we tend to studied the leachate pollution index (LPI) and emission fluxes of 2 greenhouse gases (CH4 and CO2) at two municipal solid waste dumpsites settled on the Ganga watercourse at Varanasi (India). The LPI could be a quantitative tool by that the leachate pollution information of marketing sites are often rumored uniformly. Concentration of nutrient ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NO3-, Cl-, PO43- ) and significant metals (Cd2+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Mn2+ ) in leachate varied with season with values being highest in time of year. Total dissolved solids, conduction and salinity in leachate showed an analogous trend. Leachate pollution index was found to be eighty seven.19 and 82.56 at KZP and rate sites severally. The LPI was a lot of over the permissible limit at each the sites indicating high contamination potential for surface and water and risk to human health. Among all the study metals, atomic number 82 was found in abundance at web site one. The emission flux of CH4ranged from ten.73 to 96.74 mg m-2 h-1 which of dioxide from seventeen.28 to 321.89 mg m-2 h-1. Emission flux of each the greenhouse gases raised with rising wet and temperature. The rates were higher at young lowland web site and between-site variations within the emission of CH4 and dioxide were important. The study has connection establishing lowland associated contamination to Ganga watercourse and reducing uncertainties in greenhouse emission emission estimates in India. [2]

Modelling greenhouse emission Emissions of a Hybrid Fixed-film Anammox method Treating Sludge Dewatering Centrate in waste Treatment

The aim of this study is to estimate and optimize gas (GHG) emissions of a method in effluent treatment, that utilizes anaerobic ammonium ion oxidisation (Anammox). The single-stage nitritation-Anammox method applies mounted biofilm carriers and treats the centrate of sludge dewatering. GPS-X biokinetic modelling tool was used for quantifying the precise inhalation anesthetic, greenhouse gas and methane series emissions at varied operational conditions. In general, the quantity of biology connected GHG production was calculable to be beyond that of indirect emissions, by 3 orders of magnitude. Of direct emissions, inhalation anesthetic gas production ought to be taken under consideration primarily. supported the simulations, possible choices of minimising N2O emissions embody applying associate degree operational temperature of 30-35°C, and increasing flowing to scale back the result of O limitation. To unharness less N2O, the method ought to additionally otherwise be operated as associate degree IFAS application with a coffee concentration of suspended solids (1.5-2 g/L), or maybe while not sludge recycle. [3]

Greenhouse Gas Emission Determinants in Nigeria: Implications for Trade, temperature change Mitigation and Adaptation Policies

This study investigated and analyzed the determinants of CO2 (CO2) emission in African country. The study relied on secondary information from International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and financial organisation of African country covering forty years (1970-2009). the info were analyzed exploitation Zellner’s on the face of it Unrelated Regression (SURE) model. The results of the analysis show that fossil energy demand or consumption, rents from biological science trade, agricultural acreage growth and farm technology were vital determinants of gas (GHG) emission within the study area. On the opposite hand, the second equation indicated that fuel energy demand was exogenously determined by economic process rate (proxied by gross domestic product growth rate) and farm technology applied within the country. it had been suggested that African country ought to place in situ policies that may tax corporations or companies emitting GHGs and utilize such tax payoff for analysis and building the capacities of farmers to adapt to hurtful impact of temperature change within the country and continent. the event of existing and new technologies for adapting to temperature change and variability, building of environmental consciousness of Nigerians through course of study restructuring and provision of weather information services by the Nigerian governments and their agencies to modify farmers arrange against weather uncertainty and risks were additionally suggested. [4]

Reference

[1] Bastami, M., L. Jones, D., & Chadwick, D. R. (2016). Mitigating Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Stored Slurry through the Addition of Brewing Sugar and a Biological Additive. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change6(4), 236-249. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJECC/2016/26904

[2] Pandey, J., Kaushik, P., & Tripathi, S. (2014). Assessment of Leachate Pollution Index and Greenhouse Gas Emission at MSW Dumpsites along Ganga River at Varanasi, India. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change4(3), 292-311. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJECC/2014/14306

[3] Bencsik, D., & Karches, T. (2016). Modelling Greenhouse Gas Emissions of a Hybrid Fixed-film Anammox Process Treating Sludge Dewatering Centrate in Wastewater Treatment. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change6(4), 250-258. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJECC/2016/26725

[4] Achike, A. I., & Onoja, A. O. (2014). Greenhouse Gas Emission Determinants in Nigeria: Implications for Trade, Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Policies. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change4(1), 83-94. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJECC/2014/8576

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