Methodological Issues in Diarrhoeal Diseases Epidemiology: Definition of Diarrhoeal Episodes

Baqui A H (Community Health Division, International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh) (ICDDR, B) GPO Box 128, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh), Black R E, Yunus Md, Hoque A R A, Chowhury H R and Sack R B. Methodological issues in diarrhoeal diseases epidemiology: definition of diarrhoeal episodes. International Journal of Epidemiology 1991; 20: 1057–1063.

A review of the diarrhoeal disease literature reveals considerable variability within the definition of diarrhoeal episodes. the utilization of varied definitions of diarrhoea and episodes results in misclassification, affects the estimates of the disease burden in communities and reduces comparability of the findings from different studies. [1]

The global burden of diarrhoeal disease in children

One in 12 of the youngsters born in 2001 have died or will die before their fifth birthday. This represents an annual total of 10.8 million childhood deaths, about 70% of which occur in infancy. Child mortality has declined from an estimated 15 million deaths in 1980, but eminently preventable and treatable conditions, like pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria, measles, and malnutrition, are still leading killers of youngsters. Aggressive efforts to scale back child mortality must continue. Hard data on the cause-specific disease burden will assist in planning interventions and measuring their impact. [2]

The magnitude of the global problem of diarrhoeal disease: a ten-year update.

In order to update global estimates of diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality in developing countries, we administered a review of articles published from 1980 to this and calculated median estimates for the incidence of diarrhoea and diarrhoeal mortality among under-5-year-olds. The incidence of diarrhoea obtained (2.6 episodes per child per year) was virtually an equivalent as that estimated by Snyder & Merson in 1982, while the worldwide mortality estimate was lower (3.3 million deaths per year; range, 1.5-5.1 million). The mortality estimate is predicated on alittle number of active surveillance and prospective studies, and thus related to an outsized degree of uncertainty, reflecting the weakness of the worldwide database. However, many surveys reporting reductions in mortality in several locations are according to a decreased estimate for mortality. [3]

Congenital diarrhoeal disorders: advances in this evolving web of inherited enteropathies

Congenital diarrhoeal disorders (CDDs) represent an evolving web of rare chronic enteropathies, with a typical onset early in life. In many of those conditions, severe chronic diarrhoea represents the first clinical manifestation, whereas in others diarrhoea is merely a component of a more complex multi-organ or systemic disorder. Typically, within the primary days of life, diarrhoea results in a life-threatening condition highlighted by severe dehydration and serum electrolyte abnormalities. Thus, within the overwhelming majority of cases appropriate therapy must be started immediately to stop dehydration and long-term, sometimes severe, complications. [4]

Episodic Diarrhoeal Diseases and Hygienic Practices among Caregivers of Under-fives Attending a Rural Health-centre in Anambra State, Nigeria

Background: Hand-washing, environmental sanitation and other hygienic practices are public health measures to stop diarrhoea. This study assessed episodic diarrhoeal diseases and hygienic practices in Anambra State, Nigeria.

Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey of 232 consenting parents/ caregivers who attended Comprehensive Health Centre, Ukpo. The respondents were enrolled on each clinic day by exit interview within the selected facility, hence convenient sampling was done.  Data were collected employing a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire on the child`s socio-demographics, feeding pattern, episodes of diarrhoea within the last 24 months, also as parents hand-washing techniques. [5]

Reference

[1] Baqui, A.H., Black, R.E., Yunus, M.D., Hoque, A.A., Chowdhury, H.R. and Sack, R.B., 1991. Methodological issues in diarrhoeal diseases epidemiology: definition of diarrhoeal episodes. International journal of epidemiology, 20(4), (Web Link)

[2] Parashar, U.D., Bresee, J.S. and Glass, R.I., 2003. The global burden of diarrhoeal disease in children. (Web Link)

[3] Bern, C., Martines, J., De Zoysa, I. and Glass, R.I., 1992. The magnitude of the global problem of diarrhoeal disease: a ten-year update. Bulletin of the world health organization, 70(6), (Web Link)

[4] Congenital diarrhoeal disorders: advances in this evolving web of inherited enteropathies
Roberto Berni Canani, Giuseppe Castaldo, Rosa Bacchetta, Martín G. Martín & Olivier Goulet
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology volume 12, (Web Link)

[5] Ohamaeme, M. C., Anyanwagu, U. C., Egwurugwu, J. N., Dike, E. I. and Eberendu, I. G. (2018) “Episodic Diarrhoeal Diseases and Hygienic Practices among Caregivers of Under-fives Attending a Rural Health-centre in Anambra State, Nigeria”, International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 33(2), (Web Link)

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