RNA editing in Newcastle disease virus

The co-transcriptional editing of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) P gene has been studied by sequence analysis of cloned viral genomic RNA and mRNA. Evidence has been obtained for the precise insertion of non-templated G nucleotides, the consequence of which is that the generation of three populations of P gene-derived mRNAs. The three populations encode proteins (P, V and W) which have a typical N-terminal region, but which utilize three different reading frames at their C termini. Paradoxically, NDV edits its P gene mRNA by the insertion of non-templated G residues during a fashion almost like Sendai and measles viruses (P → V editing) despite its apparent closer evolutionary relationship to the simian virus type 5, mumps and related group of viruses which edit a V genomic sequence to urge an mRNA to encode a functional P protein (V → P editing). [1]

Newcastle disease virus selectively kills human tumor cells

Newcastle disease virus (NDV), strain 73-T, has previously been shown to be cytolytic to mouse tumor cells. during this study, we’ve evaluated the facility of NDV to duplicate in and kill human tumor cells in culture and in athymic mice. Plaque assays were used to determine the cytolytic activity of NDV on six human tumor cell lines, fibrosarcoma (HT1080), osteosarcoma (KHOS), cervical carcinoma (KB8-5-11), bladder carcinoma (HCV29T), neuroblastoma (IMR32), and Wilm’s tumor (G104), and on nine different normal human fibroblast lines. NDV formed plaques on all tumor cells tested also as on chick embryo cells (CEC), the native host for NDV. Plaques didn’t form on any of the normal fibroblast lines. To detect NDV replication, virus yield assays were performed which measured virus particles in infected cell culture supernatants. Virus yield increased 10,000-fold within 24 hr in tumor and CEC supernatants. [2]

Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus as a Vaccine Vector

A complete cDNA a bit like the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine strain Hitchner B1 was constructed, and infectious recombinant virus expressing an influenza virus hemagglutinin was generated by reverse genetics. The rescued virus induces a strong humoral antibody response against influenza virus and provides complete protection against a dose of influenza virus challenge in mice, demonstrating the potential of recombinant NDV as a vaccine vector. [3]

Selective oncolytic effect of an attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV-HUJ) in lung tumors

Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, features a possible oncolytic effect which can be of significance within the treatment of a selection of cancer diseases. An attenuated lentogenic isolate of NDV (HUJ) demonstrated a selective cytopathic effect upon a panel of human and mouse lung tumor cells, as compared to human nontumorigenic lung cells. The virus-selective oncolytic effect is apoptosis dependent, and related to higher levels of viral transcription, translation and progeny virus formation. Furthermore, NDV-HUJ oncolytic activity is directed in-cis and not through induction of cytokines, which can act in-trans on neighboring cells. [4]

Molecular Detection, Biological Characterization and Evaluation of Protective Potentiality of a Velogenic Strain of Newcastle Disease Virus Isolate of Bangladesh

Aims: The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from recent outbreaks in Bangladesh and protective potentiality evaluation of a velogenic NDV strain.

Methodology: an entire of 19 lung tissue samples were collected from dead layer chickens of clinically suspected Newcastle disease (ND) cases. Ten days old embryonated chicken eggs, day-old chick and six-week-old sero-negative chickens were used for the isolation and pathotype determination of the virus. Hemagglutination (HA), hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests using anti-APMV-1 polyclonal serum were used for primary identification and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was administered for the confirmation of the isolated viruses by amplification of F gene of NDV using gene specific primers. Three, out of 11 isolates of NDV were subjected to pathotype determination by mean death time (MDT), intracerebral pathogenecity index (ICPI) and intravenous pathogenecity index (IVPI). one of the isolates of NDV of the year 2012 was selected as vaccine candidate to figure out its immunogenicity. ND vaccine was prepared by inactivating virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) with 0.1% formaldehyde and adjuvanted with 40% aluminium hydroxide gel. [5]

Reference

[1] Steward, M., Vipond, I.B., Millar, N.S. and Emmerson, P.T., 1993. RNA editing in Newcastle disease virus. Journal of General Virology, 74(12), (Web Link)

[2] Reichard, K.W., Lorence, R.M., Cascino, C.J., Peeples, M.E., Walter, R.J., Fernando, M.B., Reyes, H.M. and Greager, J.A., 1992. Newcastle disease virus selectively kills human tumor cells. Journal of Surgical Research, 52(5), (Web Link)

[3] Nakaya, T., Cros, J., Park, M.S., Nakaya, Y., Zheng, H., Sagrera, A., Villar, E., Garcı́a-Sastre, A. and Palese, P., 2001. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector. Journal of virology, 75(23), (Web Link)

[4] Selective oncolytic effect of an attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV-HUJ) in lung tumors
B Yaacov, E Elihaoo, I lazar, M Ben-Shlomo, I Greenbaum, A Panet & Z Zakay-Rones
Cancer Gene Therapy volume 15, (Web Link)

[5] Hossain, M. G., Saha, S., Akter, S., Islam, M. A. and Amin, M. M. (2017) “Molecular Detection, Biological Characterization and Evaluation of Protective Potentiality of a Velogenic Strain of Newcastle Disease Virus Isolate of Bangladesh”, Biotechnology Journal International, 17(3), (Web Link)

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