Civil servants in Malawi: cultural dualism, moonlighting and corruption in the shadow of good governance

This study traces the implementation of the good governance agenda in Malawi from the loan documents signed by government representatives and the Bretton Woods institutions to the individual experiences of civil servants who responded in unforeseen ways to the reform measures. Ethnographic evidence gathered in government offices, neighbourhoods and the private homes of civil servants living in Malawi’s urban and periurban areas undermines the common perception of a disconnect between State institutions and society in Africa. Instead, the book presents a comprehensive analysis of civil servants’ attempt to negotiate the effects of civil service reform and economic crisis at the turn of the 21st century. [ASC Leiden abstract] [1]

Making Plans for Liberia—a Trusteeship Approach to Good Governance?

Since the end of the Liberian civil war in August 2003 the international community has been ‘making plans’ for Liberia. However, it rarely questioned whether these plans were in accordance with the political and economic logic of the peace agreement and the subsequent transitional government. The consequence was that corruption continued and a much more intrusive economic management plan was established. The Governance and Economic Management Assistance Programme (gemap) is supposed to combat corruption and facilitate good governance, but it also limits the range of policy options for the new democratically elected government of Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf. The irony is that the best and most legitimate government that Liberia has ever had is subject to stronger external control than any of its predecessors. The probability that this scheme will remain sustainable when donor interest shifts elsewhere is low, and what is needed is a more pragmatic approach that draws a wider segment of Liberian society into anti-corruption management and creates checks and balances between them. [2]

Framework for assessing governance of the health system in developing countries: Gateway to good governance

Governance is thought to be a key determinant of economic growth, social advancement and overall development, as well as for the attainment of the MDGs in low- and middle-income countries. Governance of the health system is the least well-understood aspect of health systems. A framework for assessing health system governance (HSG) at national and sub-national levels is presented, which has been applied in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean.

In developing the HSG framework key issues considered included the role of the state vs. the market; role of the ministries of health vs. other state ministries; role of actors in governance; static vs. dynamic health systems; and health reform vs. human rights-based approach to health. Four existing frameworks were considered: World Health Organization’s (WHO) domains of stewardship; Pan American Health Organization’s (PAHO) essential public health functions; World Bank’s six basic aspects of governance; and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) principles of good governance. The proposed HSG assessment framework includes the following 10 principles—strategic vision, participation and consensus orientation, rule of law, transparency, responsiveness, equity and inclusiveness, effectiveness and efficiency, accountability, intelligence and information, and ethics.

The framework permits ‘diagnoses of the ills’ in HSG at the policy and operational levels and points to interventions for its improvement. In the case of Pakistan, where the framework was applied, a positive aspect was the growing participation and consensus orientation among stakeholders, while weaknesses were identified in relation to strategic vision, accountability, transparency, effectiveness and efficiency and rule of law.

In using the HSG framework it needs to be recognized that the principles are value driven and not normative and are to be seen in the social and political context; and the framework relies on a qualitative approach and does not follow a scoring or ranking system. It does not directly address aid effectiveness but provides insight on the ability to utilize external resources and has the ability to include the effect of global health governance on national HSG as the subject itself gets better crystallized.

The improved performance of the ministries of health and state health departments is at the heart of this framework. The framework helps raise the level of awareness among policymakers of the importance of HSG. The road to good governance in health is long and uneven. Assessing HSG is only the first step; the challenge that remains is to carry out effective governance in vastly different institutional contexts. [3]

The Pursuit of Good Governance and the Anti-Financial Corruption Blitz in Nigeria: A Study of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) (2003-2016)

The study examines the extent to which the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) has been able to tackle financial corruption and its gangrenous effects in Nigeria between 2003 and 2016. The study relied on systematic qualitative content analysis of secondary sources of data, and the strain theory was adopted as the tool of analysis for the study. A cursory thrust into the political culture of corruption in Nigeria’s history revealed that even with the establishment of anti-graft agencies and legislations by the distinct administrations, financial corruption has, nevertheless, continued to wax stronger and escalate like wildfire. The paper argues that corruption has been perpetrated with impunity, that there exists a porous intelligence base in the pursuit of financial corruption cases, that unnecessary politicking by the government and the elites limits the EFCC’s effectiveness, and that the existence of the immunity clause, plea bargain and judicial redtapism and misconducts short-changes the pursuit of the rule of law and the delivery of justice which, in turn, hamper on the anti-graft war of the EFCC. The paper, therefore, recommends the pursuit of good governance and genuine political will in the anti-graft war, incorporation of a strong scientific base in the investigation and persecution of financial corruption cases, and granting the EFCC autonomy to operate freely but under specific legal codes. [4]

Good Governance of Sustainable Tourism in Nature Park – Carita Beach

Aims/Objective: This study aims to review whether the performance of the tourism activities management in Nature Park – Carita Beach has already contributed to the increase of domestic economic growth, and natural conservation also preservation of local culture.

Design: This study adopts the principal concept of sustainable tourism and collaborated with strategic management through analyzes of internal factors and external factors.

Methodology: According to data and analytics, this research approach is using qulitative approach utilizes the Miles and Huberman model analytics. The technique of determining participants is conducted based on the required data in the social situation under study using snowball sampling approach.

Results: Existing profile of tourist destination management of Nature Park – Carita Beach, from the research result showed that stakeholders have not shown behaviour that oriented to the principal of sustainable tourism. Tourism management still conventional like in most of developing countries.. Therefore, active participation and strong encouragement from various parties, especially the local government authorities, are required to be able to evolve in applying the principles of sustainable tourism. [5]

Reference

[1]  Anders, G., 2005. Civil servants in Malawi: Cultural dualism, moonlighting and corruption in the shadow of good governance.

[2] B⊘ ås, M., 2009. Making plans for Liberia—a trusteeship approach to good governance?. Third World Quarterly, 30(7), pp.1329-1341.

[3] Siddiqi, S., Masud, T.I., Nishtar, S., Peters, D.H., Sabri, B., Bile, K.M. and Jama, M.A., 2009. Framework for assessing governance of the health system in developing countries: gateway to good governance. Health policy, 90(1), pp.13-25.

[4] Offiong Duke, O. and David Agbaji, D. (2017) “The Pursuit of Good Governance and the Anti-Financial Corruption Blitz in Nigeria: A Study of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) (2003-2016)”, Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 2(4), pp. 1-16. doi: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/32115.

[5] Sulistyadi, Y., Eddyono, F. and Entas, D. (2017) “Good Governance of Sustainable Tourism in Nature Park – Carita Beach”, Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, 5(2), pp. 1-14. doi: 10.9734/AJEBA/2017/37019.

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