Extreme climatic events and their evolution under changing climatic conditions

This short introductory paper illustrates some key issues concerning extremes by that specialize in daily temperature extremes defined using quantiles and threshold exceedances. The examples include both a low- and a high-elevation site within the Swiss Alps where long records of homogenous daily data are readily available. The analysis of extremes highlights several features, a number of them taken from the 2003 wave that affected Europe, especially significant changes within the trends of quantiles within the course of the 20th century, differences within the altitudinal behavior of maximum or minimum temperatures, and shut links between means and therefore the extreme quantiles of daily temperatures. [1]

Nitrate Nitrogen in Surface Waters as Influenced by Climatic Conditions and Agricultural Practices

Subsurface tile drainage from row-crop agricultural production systems has been identified as a serious source of nitrate entering surface waters within the Mississippi basin. Noncontrollable factors like precipitation and mineralization of soil organic matter have an incredible effect on drainage losses, nitrate concentrations, and nitrate loadings in subsurface drainage water. Cropping system and nutrient management inputs are controllable factors that have a varying influence on nitrate losses. Row crops leak substantially greater amounts of nitrate compared with perennial crops; however, satisfactory economic return with many perennials is an obstacle at the present. [2]

CLIMATIC CONDITIONS AND TROPICAL MONTANE FOREST PRODUCTIVITY: THE FOG HAS NOT LIFTED YET

Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) differ from lowland moist forests in structure (low stature, small and hard leaves, low diversity) and functioning (low productivity, low nutrient‐cycling rates). to elucidate these differences, a spread of hypotheses are proposed, most of which are related directly or indirectly to climate, but none of those provides a satisfactory explanation for all typical TMCF traits. the only climatic factor shared by all TMCF, the frequent occurrence of low cloud, has multiple effects, but not all are well understood. during this paper we describe and analyze the climatic and soil‐moisture conditions prevailing in TMCF as reported within the literature. TMCF evapotranspiration is restricted by both climate and canopy conductance. TMCF productivity is low, but our understanding of those forest’s carbon balance is incomplete. [3]

Assessment of Risk and Resilience of Terrestrial Ecosystem Productivity under the Influence of Extreme Climatic Conditions over India

Analysing the link between terrestrial ecosystem productivity (i.e., Net Primary Productivity: NPP) and extreme climate conditions is significant within the context of accelerating threats thanks to global climate change . To reveal the impact of adjusting extreme conditions on NPP, a copula-based probabilistic model was developed, and therefore the study was administered over 25 river basins and 10 vegetation sorts of India. Further, the resiliency of the terrestrial ecosystems to sustain the acute disturbances was evaluated at annual scale, monsoon, and non-monsoon seasons. The results showed, 15 out of 25 river basins were at high risks, and terrestrial ecosystems in just 5 river basins were resilient to extreme climate. [4]

Evaluation of Soil and Climatic Conditions Supporting Maize (Zea mays L.) Production in Makurdi, Nigeria

The aim was to guage the suitability of the soils for the assembly of maize and to possess an in depth soil database for effective land use planning. Soil requirements for maize were collected from past research works and compared with data obtained from the sector survey. The study showed that the soils of the world had formed under climatic environment presently characterized by an annual rainfall of about 1330.20 mm and a mean annual temperature of about 27.80°C. The soils of the upper slope were classified as Typic Paleustalfs, while those of the center and lower slopes were classified as Typic Haplustalfs and Typic Kandiaqualfs respectively, using soil taxonomy. The soils were well drained to poorly drained. The clay content ranged from 7.20 to 29.30, increasing with depth. Organic carbon was low (0.47%) within the upland and comparatively high (0.86%) within the low land. [5]

Reference

[1] Beniston, M. and Stephenson, D.B., 2004. Extreme climatic events and their evolution under changing climatic conditions. Global and planetary change, 44(1-4), (Web Link)

[2] Randall, G.W. and Mulla, D.J., 2001. Nitrate nitrogen in surface waters as influenced by climatic conditions and agricultural practices. Journal of Environmental Quality, 30(2), (Web Link)

[3] Bruijnzeel, L.A. and Veneklaas, E.J., 1998. Climatic conditions and tropical montane forest productivity: the fog has not lifted yet. Ecology, 79(1), (Web Link)

[4] Assessment of Risk and Resilience of Terrestrial Ecosystem Productivity under the Influence of Extreme Climatic Conditions over India
Srinidhi Jha, Jew Das & Manish Kumar Goyal
Scientific Reports volume 9, (Web Link)

[5] Odoemena, S. O. and Igomu, E. A. (2017) “Evaluation of Soil and Climatic Conditions Supporting Maize (Zea mays L.) Production in Makurdi, Nigeria”, Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 12(2), (Web Link)

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