The greatest problem for 2050, where the world population is estimated at 9.2 billion, is generating ample food that is healthy and nutritious. The overall food production would have to increase by 50 percent to 60 percent to feed these people. Climate models forecast that warmer temperatures and changes in drought frequency and length will have a negative effect on crop growth and productivity over the next few decades. An integrated agricultural and breeding agenda is needed for these new global challenges. It is important to intensify agro-ecosystems’ sustainability by generating more food with lower inputs, adapting agriculture to climate change, maintaining biodiversity through its use, and making markets work for smallholder farmers in order to tackle the key current issues. In the successful growth of modern agriculture, plant breeding has played a crucial role. To resolve the complexity of the combined impacts of issues such as population development, food security , food safety and human security, We need to rethink the role of diversity in plant breeding in the preservation of biological diversity for health. The secret to cultivating climate-resilient, nutritious and profitable crops is the continuous availability of high-quality crop germplasm. Global efforts are under way to establish breeding populations, including wild and weedy relatives, through the exploitation of exotic germplasm. Advances in genomics, phenomics and bio-informatic tools have led to many knowledge-intensive methods being implemented to accelerate genetic gains in various food crops. The breeding method to be used is determined by trait heritability, gene action, the number of genes regulating the target trait(s), heterosis and genotype-environment interactions. The foundation of crop development techniques will remain traditional plant breeding. Genetic engineering has the ability to overcome some of the most complicated biotic limitations faced by farmers, which are not Via traditional plant breeding alone, easily handled. To remove coverage so broad that it stifles creativity, security measures and regulations, in particular patenting, must be moderated. In order to facilitate science and the free flow of materials and information, they must be made less restrictive. Through data and code sharing, an open source software system has the potential to increase breeding performance, while open source seed systems should allow continued seed saving, breeding, and seed exchange without restriction. In order to bring “harmony” between agriculture and the environment, plant breeding can be a powerful tool, but collaborations and collaboration are needed to make this a reality.

Author (s) Details

João Carlos da Silva Dias,
University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal.

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