Tumorigenesis is extensively associated with oxidative stress. A number of studies have been conducted in human pituitaries and adenomas on stable tyrosine nitration as a marker of oxidative damage. The biological features of the tumour were involved in nitrotyrosine sites found within the major protein domains or motifs. This paper reviews published studies on the characteristics of mass spectrometry of pituitary controls and adenomas in nitropeptides and nitroproteomics. The nitroproteomics approach used the current status of studies in human pituitary nitroproteomics, and future perspectives are checked. The first significant step for nitroproteomics studies is the enrichment of these low-abundance endogenous nitroproteins from human tissues or body fluid samples. In order to determine the amino acid sequence and locate the nitrotyrosine sites, mass spectrometry is the necessary method. To locate the nitrotyrosine site within the corresponding protein domains/motifs, bioinformatics analyses, including protein domain and motif analyses, are required. In order to discover signalling pathway networks involving nitroproteins from a systematically global perspective, system biology techniques, including pathway analysis, are essential. Future quantitative nitroproteomics may discover nitroprotein unique to pituitary adenoma (s). The impact of tyrosine nitration on the structure and functions of a protein can be strongly explained by structural biology techniques such as X-ray crystallography research. These studies will ultimately discuss tyrosine nitration pathways and biological roles in pituitary tumorigenesis and will establish nitroprotein biomarkers for pituitary adenomas and drug design targets for pituitary adenoma therapy. In the future, to discover the nitroprotein biomarker unique to each cell type of a pituitary adenoma and further examine the 3D structure of that nitroprotein, quantitative nitroproteomics of each cell type of a pituitary adenoma must be carried out. Moreover in order to identify body-fluid nitroproteins or nitropeptide patterns, it is important to establish quantitative nitroproteomics of body fluids (CSF and blood plasma) of pituitary adenoma patients.

Author(s) Details

Xianquan Zhan
University Creative Research Initiatives Center, Shandong First Medical University, 6699 Qingdao Road, Jinan, Shandong 250117, China, Key Laboratory of Cancer Proteomics of Chinese Ministry of Health, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China and Hunan Engineering Laboratory for Structural Biology, Drug Design, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China and State Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Anticancer Drugs, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China.

Xiaowei Wang
Key Laboratory of Cancer Proteomics of Chinese Ministry of Health, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China, Hunan Engineering Laboratory for Structural Biology and Drug Design, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China and State Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Anticancer Drugs, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China.

Dominic M. Desiderio
The Charles B. Stout Neuroscience Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 847 Monroe Avenue, Memphis, TN 38163, USA.

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